How to format your references using the European Actuarial Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Actuarial Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eberl G (2014) Immunology: A is for immunity. Nature 508:47–48
A journal article with 2 authors
Paerl HW, Otten TG (2013) Environmental science. Blooms bite the hand that feeds them. Science 342:433–434
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Horn RC, Watts HE, Holekamp KE (2008) Do female hyaenas choose mates based on tenure? Nature 454:E1; discussion E2
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sabio G, Das M, Mora A, et al (2008) A stress signaling pathway in adipose tissue regulates hepatic insulin resistance. Science 322:1539–1543

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic SG (2011) Advanced Wireless Communications & Internet. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Goemans M, Correa J (2013) Integer Programming and Combinatorial Optimization: 16th International Conference, IPCO 2013, Valparaíso, Chile, March 18-20, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Fast M, Clark WW (2013) Qualitative Economics: The Science Needed in Economics. In: Clark WW II (ed) The Next Economics: Global Cases in Energy, Environment, and Climate Change. Springer, New York, NY, pp 71–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Actuarial Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Race Is Still On For A Reusable Rocket Despite The SpaceX Setback. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Aviation Security: Airport Perimeter and Access Control Security Would Benefit from Risk Assessment and Strategy Updates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Makovec MG (2008) A study of the factors predicting attrition and contributing to the attrition rate of high school teachers in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2000) The Student, the Sleuth and the Mysterious Pillow. New York Times 141

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Actuarial Journal
AbbreviationEur. Actuar. J.
ISSN (print)2190-9733
ISSN (online)2190-9741
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Economics and Econometrics
Statistics and Probability

Other styles