How to format your references using the European Actuarial Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Actuarial Journal (Eur. Actuar. J.). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellison AM (2014) Political borders should not hamper wildlife. Nature 508:9
A journal article with 2 authors
Sime LC, Wolff EW (2011) Antarctic accumulation seasonality. Nature 479:E1-2; author reply E2-4
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamaguchi M, Shiga M, Kaburaki H (2005) Grain boundary decohesion by impurity segregation in a nickel-sulfur system. Science 307:393–397
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pittermann J, Sperry JS, Hacke UG, et al (2005) Torus-margo pits help conifers compete with angiosperms. Science 310:1924

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reeve WD (2006) DC Power System Design for Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Maydell B v. (2006) Enabling Social Policy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Katsev IL, Prikhach AS, Zege EP, et al (2009) Iterative procedure for retrieval of spectral aerosol optical thickness and surface reflectance from satellite data using fast radiative transfer code and its application to MERIS measurements. In: Kokhanovsky AA, Leeuw G de (eds) Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 101–133

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Actuarial Journal.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Scientists Believe They Have Explained The Great Flu Outbreak Of 1918. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Limited English Proficiency: A Growing and Costly Educational Challenge Facing Many School Districts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forlano L (2008) When code meets place: Collaboration and innovation at WiFi hotspots. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) Bill to Ease Puerto Rico Through $72 Billion Debt Crisis Introduced in House. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Actuarial Journal
AbbreviationEur. Actuar. J.
ISSN (print)2190-9733
ISSN (online)2190-9741
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Economics and Econometrics
Statistics and Probability

Other styles