How to format your references using the Journal of Children and Media citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Children and Media. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich, E. S. (2009). Whistleblowers at risk as science fails to correct itself. Nature, 460(7258), 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M. M., & Johanson, Z. (2003). Separate evolutionary origins of teeth from evidence in fossil jawed vertebrates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5610), 1235–1236.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, C.-Y., Robinson, K. J., & Doe, C. Q. (2006). Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation. Nature, 439(7076), 594–598.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Canman, J. C., Lewellyn, L., Laband, K., Smerdon, S. J., Desai, A., Bowerman, B., & Oegema, K. (2008). Inhibition of Rac by the GAP activity of centralspindlin is essential for cytokinesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5907), 1543–1546.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shamsuddin, M. (2016). Physical Chemistry of Metallurgical Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Anderson, R. E., LaVail, M. M., & Hollyfield, J. G. (Eds.). (2008). Recent Advances in Retinal Degeneration (Vol. 613). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimcheva, T., & Kraptcheva, S. (2008). Lessons Learned and Good Practice in the Preparation of the National Implementation Plan (NIP) for the Management of Pops in the Republic of Bulgaria. In E. Mehmetli & B. Koumanova (Eds.), The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment (pp. 31–49). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Children and Media.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 23). The Forecast Calls For Spiders. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Weather Satellite Costs Have Increased: Problems Have Occurred in Their Manufacturing Quality Control (RCED-86-28). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darko-Mensah, K. (2019). Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure the Online Outsourcing Efficiency of Sub-Saharan African Countries [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, August 26). Sitter Wanted: Must Supply Nuts. New York Times, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reich, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Reich, 2009; Smith & Johanson, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith & Johanson, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Canman et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Children and Media
AbbreviationJ. Child. Media
ISSN (print)1748-2798
ISSN (online)1748-2801

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