How to format your references using the Archives of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Macilwain C (2013) The unlikely wisdom of Chairman Mao. Nature 495:143
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ekström G, Stark CP (2013) Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics. Science 339:1416–1419
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Manoharan HC, Lutz CP, Eigler DM (2000) Quantum mirages formed by coherent projection of electronic structure. Nature 403:512–515
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Lelouard H, Gatti E, Cappello F, et al (2002) Transient aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins during dendritic cell maturation. Nature 417:177–182

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hoffmann W (2014) The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Orlovskaya N, Lugovy M (2011) Boron Rich Solids: Sensors, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Thermoelectrics, Armor. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Miyamoto H, Arai M, Kawarada H, et al (2007) Electronic Devices. In: Takahashi K, Yoshikawa A, Sandhu A (eds) Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Fundamental Properties and Modern Photonic and Electronic Devices. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 231–280

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Virology.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R (2016) Clean Energy Sources Provided Up To 50% Of The UK’s Electricity This Summer. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/clean-energy-sources-provided-up-to-50-of-the-uks-electricity-this-summer/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1986) University Finances: Research Revenues and Expenditures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Luna AC (2009) Analysis of the California Mental Health Services Act. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Sisario B (2017) Streaming Services Struggle to Root Out Music That Incites Hatred. New York Times B5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Virology
AbbreviationArch. Virol.
ISSN (print)0304-8608
ISSN (online)1432-8798
ScopeVirology
General Medicine

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