How to format your references using the Archives of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zahn R (2009) Climate change: Beyond the CO(2) connection. Nature 460:335–336
A journal article with 2 authors
Bakker HJ, Nienhuys H-K (2002) Delocalization of protons in liquid water. Science 297:587–590
A journal article with 3 authors
Shekhawat G, Tark S-H, Dravid VP (2006) MOSFET-Embedded microcantilevers for measuring deflection in biomolecular sensors. Science 311:1592–1595
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhao T, Zhu Y, Morinibu A, et al (2014) HIF-1-mediated metabolic reprogramming reduces ROS levels and facilitates the metastatic colonization of cancers in lungs. Sci Rep 4:3793

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rhee MY (2013) Wireless Mobile Internet Security. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Crowder JA (2015) Agile Project Management: Managing for Success. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Jang J-B, Lee H-P, Hwang K-M, Song Y-C (2011) Prediction of Prestress Force on Grouted Tendon by Experimental Modal Analysis. In: Proulx T (ed) Dynamics of Civil Structures, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010. Springer, New York, NY, pp 33–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Computer Program Reconstructed Dinosaur Locomotion. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Schools And Libraries Program: Actions Taken to Improve Operational Procedures Prior to Committing Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weitkunat S (2015) Facies and Log Analysis of the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Creswell J, de la MERCED MJ (2017) Activist Investor Seeks Seat at Procter & Gamble. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Virology
AbbreviationArch. Virol.
ISSN (print)0304-8608
ISSN (online)1432-8798
General Medicine

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