How to format your references using the Archives of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman S (2004) Bricks and mortar. Nature 427:660
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu M, Fu D (2007) Structure of the zinc transporter YiiP. Science 317:1746–1748
A journal article with 3 authors
Lenton TM, Schellnhuber HJ, Szathmáry E (2004) Climbing the co-evolution ladder. Nature 431:913
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang F-L, Chen J-L, Kwek LC, Vedral V (2013) Requirement of dissonance in assisted optimal state discrimination. Sci Rep 3:2134

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lynn PA (2010) Electricity from Sunlight. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Nagel WE, Kröner DB, Resch MM (2009) High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering ’08: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2008. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Miura N, Sakurai T, Kuroda T (2010) Inductive Coupled Communications. In: Ho R, Drost R (eds) Coupled Data Communication Techniques for High-Performance and Low-Power Computing. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 79–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Virology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) China Wants To Build A Space Plane That Can Carry 20 People To Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Reserve Training: An Alternative to the Active Army Education Program for National Guard Technicians. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Partma L (2009) Media: Pretrial publicity and its effects. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) By the Time It Gets Dark. New York Times C8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Virology
AbbreviationArch. Virol.
ISSN (print)0304-8608
ISSN (online)1432-8798
General Medicine

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