How to format your references using the Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Y. Gogotsi, Materials science. High-temperature rubber made from carbon nanotubes, Science. 330 (2010) 1332–1333.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.S. Hopkinson Jr, J.J. Vallino, Efficient export of carbon to the deep ocean through dissolved organic matter, Nature. 433 (2005) 142–145.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Jiang, F.T. Birk, D. Davidović, Effects of confinement and electron transport on magnetic switching in single Co nanoparticles, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1200.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Wang, Y. Chong, J.D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacić, Observation of unidirectional backscattering-immune topological electromagnetic states, Nature. 461 (2009) 772–775.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.A. Pagliaro, A.M. Pagliaro, Handbook of Child and Adolescent Drug and Substance Abuse, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
D. Pillay, I. Naicker, K. Pithouse-Morgan, eds., Academic Autoethnographies: Inside Teaching in Higher Education, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Andrew, A.S. Montenero, Cryocatheter Ablation for Atrial Flutter, in: M.M. Gulizia (Ed.), Current News in Cardiology: Proceedings of the Mediterranean Cardiology Meeting (Taormina, May 20–22, 2007), Springer, Milano, 2007: pp. 29–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Imposter Nanosponges Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Infection, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transfer Students: Postsecondary Institutions Could Promote More Consistent Consideration of Coursework by Not Basing Determinations on Accreditation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Wheeler, The Scaling of High Harmonics with Mid-Infrared Driving Fields and a Method for the Spatial Isolation of Individual Subfemtosecond Pulses, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Chira, When a House Falls in the Forest, New York Times. (2013) D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWeb Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web
AbbreviationWeb Semant.
ISSN (print)1570-8268
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

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