How to format your references using the Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Verdin, NAD+ in aging, metabolism, and neurodegeneration, Science. 350 (2015) 1208–1213.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.R. Burton, R.A. Dwek, Immunology. Sugar determines antibody activity, Science. 313 (2006) 627–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Werfel, K. Petersen, R. Nagpal, Designing collective behavior in a termite-inspired robot construction team, Science. 343 (2014) 754–758.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Franzese, G. Malescio, A. Skibinsky, S.V. Buldyrev, H.E. Stanley, Generic mechanism for generating a liquid-liquid phase transition, Nature. 409 (2001) 692–695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Michael, H. Gillian, K. Stefan, L. Alex, Gramsci, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
F. Gherardelli, ed., Complex Analysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Trevisan, Dense Model Theorems and Their Applications, in: Y. Ishai (Ed.), Theory of Cryptography: 8th Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2011, Providence, RI, USA, March 28-30, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 55–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, The Milky Way Is Running Away From An Extragalactic Void, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Station: National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s 1987 Cost Estimate, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Terrell, How Global Leaders Develop: A Phenomenological Study of Global Leadership Development, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Review of Texas Association Sought, New York Times. (2012) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWeb Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web
AbbreviationWeb Semant.
ISSN (print)1570-8268
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

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