How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2005. Closing the gap. Nature 433, 335.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buyx, A., Tait, J., 2011. Ethics. Ethical framework for biofuels. Science 332, 540–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Minto, C., Myers, R.A., Blanchard, W., 2008. Survival variability and population density in fish populations. Nature 452, 344–347.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamashita, A., Liu, S., Woltjen, K., Thomas, B., Meng, G., Hotta, A., Takahashi, K., Ellis, J., Yamanaka, S., Rancourt, D.E., 2013. Cartilage tissue engineering identifies abnormal human induced pluripotent stem cells. Sci. Rep. 3, 1978.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yamarone, R., 2012. The Trader’s Guide to Key Economic Indicators. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sasaki, K., Suzuki, O., Takahashi, N. (Eds.), 2012. Interface Oral Health Science 2011. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Luo, A.C.J., O’Connor, D.M., 2015. Dynamical System Interaction, in: O’Connor, D.M. (Ed.), System Dynamics with Interaction Discontinuity, Nonlinear Systems and Complexity. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 113–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. Lion Gets A CAT Scan [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Telecommunications: Financial Information on 16 Telephone and Cable Companies (No. RCED/AIMD-94-221FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gullett, D.L., 2017. Lived Experience of Suffering through the 2010 Earthquake in Haiti (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Scouting Report. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Buyx and Tait, 2011; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buyx and Tait, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamashita et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Disease
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Dis.
ISSN (print)0969-9961

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