How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Werner, R., 2015. The focus on bibliometrics makes papers less useful. Nature 517, 245.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joseph, S.B., Swanstrom, R., 2014. HIV/AIDS. A fitness bottleneck in HIV-1 transmission. Science 345, 136–137.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lowe, S.W., Cepero, E., Evan, G., 2004. Intrinsic tumour suppression. Nature 432, 307–315.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zarenia, M., Perali, A., Neilson, D., Peeters, F.M., 2014. Enhancement of electron-hole superfluidity in double few-layer graphene. Sci. Rep. 4, 7319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu, P.P., Kecs, W.W., Toma, A., 2013. Distribution Theory. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Janjuha-Jivraj, S., 2016. Championing Women Leaders: Beyond Sponsorship. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Bulgakova, N.M., Zhukov, V.P., 2014. Continuum Models of Ultrashort Laser–Matter Interaction in Application to Wide-Bandgap Dielectrics, in: Castillejo, M., Ossi, P.M., Zhigilei, L. (Eds.), Lasers in Materials Science, Springer Series in Materials Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 101–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How To Raise Tasty Cannibal Crabs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Improvements Needed in the Migrant Education Program (No. HRD-79-100). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blandin, N.M., 2008. Re-conceptualizing leadership for an era of complexity and uncertainty: A case study of leadership in a complex adaptive system (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris, E.A., Greenhouse, S., 2014. Road to the Showdown at American Apparel. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Werner, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Joseph and Swanstrom, 2014; Werner, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Joseph and Swanstrom, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zarenia et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Disease
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Dis.
ISSN (print)0969-9961

Other styles