How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Emanuel, K., 2008. Retrospective. Edward N. Lorenz (1917-2008). Science 320, 1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Garrott, R.A., Oli, M.K., 2013. Conservation. A critical crossroad for BLM’s wild horse program. Science 341, 847–848.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ristaino, J.B., Groves, C.T., Parra, G.R., 2001. PCR amplification of the Irish potato famine pathogen from historic specimens. Nature 411, 695–697.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, K.J., Arron, J.R., Stankunas, K., Crabtree, G.R., Longaker, M.T., 2007. Chemical rescue of cleft palate and midline defects in conditional GSK-3beta mice. Nature 446, 79–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Devolder, P., Janssen, J., Manca, R., 2012. Stochastic Methods for Pension Funds. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tabrizi, M.A., Bornstein, G.G., Klakamp, S.L. (Eds.), 2012. Development of Antibody-Based Therapeutics: Translational Considerations. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Mancarella, P., Toni, F., 2012. Semi-negative Abductive Logic Programs with Implicative Integrity Constraints: Semantics and Properties, in: Artikis, A., Craven, R., Kesim Çiçekli, N., Sadighi, B., Stathis, K. (Eds.), Logic Programs, Norms and Action: Essays in Honor of Marek J. Sergot on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Disease.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. Astronomers Witness Cosmic Fender Bender In The Asteroid Belt [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Head Start: Challenges in Monitoring Program Quality and Demonstrating Results (No. HEHS-98-186). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jakubowski, J.K., 2013. Making character education a reality: An investigation of secondary teachers’ perspectives toward implementation (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2013. S.&P. Seeks Dismissal of U.S. Civil Suit Over Rating of Mortgage Debt. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Emanuel, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Emanuel, 2008; Garrott and Oli, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Garrott and Oli, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Disease
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Dis.
ISSN (print)0969-9961

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