How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xu, X., 2014. Surface recombination and charged exciton in nanocrystal quantum dots on photonic crystals under two-photon excitation. Sci. Rep. 4, 5039.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peng, C., Gao, F., 2014. Protein localization analysis of essential genes in prokaryotes. Sci. Rep. 4, 6001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berger, G., Graef, F., Pfeffer, H., 2013. Glyphosate applications on arable fields considerably coincide with migrating amphibians. Sci. Rep. 3, 2622.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eder, F.R., Kotakoski, J., Kaiser, U., Meyer, J.C., 2014. A journey from order to disorder - atom by atom transformation from graphene to a 2D carbon glass. Sci. Rep. 4, 4060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf, T., 2006. Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ramsay, A., Agre, G. (Eds.), 2012. Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications: 15th International Conference, AIMSA 2012, Varna, Bulgaria, September 12-15, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez, V., Turner, T., 2011. Designing Competitive Service Models, in: Macintyre, M., Parry, G., Angelis, J. (Eds.), Service Design and Delivery, Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 61–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Disease.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. CERN Just Released 300 Terabytes Worth Of Data To The Public [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s Efforts to Ensure Bank Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (No. T-AIMD-98-73). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaplan, J.W., 2014. Not a sonata: A conception of Sonata-Allegro form and a consideration of two marimba works from a Langerian perspective (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. Nassau Comptroller Warns County on Finances. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xu, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Peng and Gao, 2014; Xu, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peng and Gao, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Eder et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Disease
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Dis.
ISSN (print)0969-9961

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