How to format your references using the Weather and Climate Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weather and Climate Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whyte, M.A., 2005. Palaeoecology: a gigantic fossil arthropod trackway. Nature 438, 576.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, R.A., Wikswo, J.P., 2011. Cardiovascular disease: several small shocks beat one big one. Nature 475, 181–182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khush, R.S., Leulier, F., Lemaitre, B., 2002. Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it. Science 296, 273–275.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shin, D., Urzhumov, Y., Lim, D., Kim, K., Smith, D.R., 2014. A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials. Sci. Rep. 4, 4084.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Welker, R.W., Nagarajan, R., Newberg, C.E., 2005. Contamination and ESD Control in High-Technology Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Audet, C., Hansen, P., Savard, G. (Eds.), 2005. Essays and Surveys in Global Optimization. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Shokrollahi, A., 2009. Theory and applications of Raptor codes, in: Emmer, M., Quarteroni, A. (Eds.), Mathknow: Mathematics, Applied Sciences and Real Life. Springer, Milano, pp. 59–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weather and Climate Extremes.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How Cancer Doctors Use Personalised Medicine To Target Variations Unique To Each Tumour [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Digital Television Transition: Issues Related to an Information Campaign Regarding the Transition (No. GAO-05-940R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, E.J., 2013. Older Americans Act of 1965, Title III: A policy analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R., 1993. Mortality Tale. New York Times 711.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Whyte, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gray and Wikswo, 2011; Whyte, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray and Wikswo, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Shin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeather and Climate Extremes
AbbreviationWeather Clim. Extrem.
ISSN (print)2212-0947
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles