How to format your references using the Weather and Climate Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weather and Climate Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K., 2004. Stipend survival. Nature 428, 102–103.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGuire, J.J., Beroza, G.C., 2012. Geophysics. A rogue earthquake off Sumatra. Science 336, 1118–1119.
A journal article with 3 authors
Killgore, W.D.S., Olson, E.A., Weber, M., 2013. Physical exercise habits correlate with gray matter volume of the hippocampus in healthy adult humans. Sci. Rep. 3, 3457.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bibikova, M., Beumer, K., Trautman, J.K., Carroll, D., 2003. Enhancing gene targeting with designed zinc finger nucleases. Science 300, 764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson, H., 2012. Cable-Stayed Bridges. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Yamanaka, R. (Ed.), 2012. Glioma: Immunotherapeutic Approaches, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Antonucci, A., 2012. An Interval-Valued Dissimilarity Measure for Belief Functions Based on Credal Semantics, in: Denoeux, T., Masson, M.-H. (Eds.), Belief Functions: Theory and Applications: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions, Compiègne, France 9-11 May 2012, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weather and Climate Extremes.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Ancient Chinese Cave Writing Describes Social Impacts of Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Hazardous Waste: Problems and Cleanup Efforts at an FAA Facility in Oklahoma City (No. RCED-88-113FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Puebla, R.A., 2014. The avant-garde tuba: Analysis and comparisons of interpretations of William Kraft’s Encounters II for unaccompanied tuba (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. Fact Check: Rumors, Claims And Context on G.O.P. Health Bill. New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (McGuire and Beroza, 2012; Powell, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGuire and Beroza, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Bibikova et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeather and Climate Extremes
AbbreviationWeather Clim. Extrem.
ISSN (print)2212-0947
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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