How to format your references using the Weather and Climate Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weather and Climate Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Franklin, A.D., 2015. DEVICE TECHNOLOGY. Nanomaterials in transistors: From high-performance to thin-film applications. Science 349, aab2750.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kilpivaara, O., Aaltonen, L.A., 2013. Diagnostic cancer genome sequencing and the contribution of germline variants. Science 339, 1559–1562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bergquist, D.C., Williams, F.M., Fisher, C.R., 2000. Longevity record for deep-sea invertebrate. Nature 403, 499–500.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Metallo, C.M., Gameiro, P.A., Bell, E.L., Mattaini, K.R., Yang, J., Hiller, K., Jewell, C.M., Johnson, Z.R., Irvine, D.J., Guarente, L., Kelleher, J.K., Vander Heiden, M.G., Iliopoulos, O., Stephanopoulos, G., 2011. Reductive glutamine metabolism by IDH1 mediates lipogenesis under hypoxia. Nature 481, 380–384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2008. Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Safety, Security, and Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dang, T.K., Wagner, R., Neuhold, E., Takizawa, M., Küng, J., Thoai, N. (Eds.), 2014. Future Data and Security Engineering: First International Conference, FDSE 2014, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 19-21, 2014, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakamura, M., Ogata, K., Futatsugi, K., 2014. Incremental Proofs of Termination, Confluence and Sufficient Completeness of OBJ Specifications, in: Iida, S., Meseguer, J., Ogata, K. (Eds.), Specification, Algebra, and Software: Essays Dedicated to Kokichi Futatsugi, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 92–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weather and Climate Extremes.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. SpaceX Reveals Plan To Simultaneously Land Three Rocket Boosters On The Ground [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Deaf Education: The National Mission of Gallaudet’s Elementary and Secondary Schools (No. HRD-87-133). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fay, C., 2017. Aposematic Variation and the Evolution of Warning Coloration in Mammals (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. J. CHIVERS; Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting from Moscow for this article, 2004. Local Rebels Said to Join in Chechen Group’s Raids Across Border. New York Times A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Franklin, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Franklin, 2015; Kilpivaara and Aaltonen, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kilpivaara and Aaltonen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Metallo et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeather and Climate Extremes
AbbreviationWeather Clim. Extrem.
ISSN (print)2212-0947
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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