How to format your references using the Weather and Climate Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weather and Climate Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cho, A., 2014. Computer science. Quantum or not, controversial computer yields no speedup. Science 344, 1330–1331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogers, R.D., Seddon, K.R., 2003. Chemistry. Ionic liquids--solvents of the future? Science 302, 792–793.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pool, J.A., Lobkovsky, E., Chirik, P.J., 2004. Hydrogenation and cleavage of dinitrogen to ammonia with a zirconium complex. Nature 427, 527–530.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xie, Q., Hu, Z., Zhu, Z., Dong, T., Zhao, Z., Cui, B., Chen, G., 2014. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato. Sci. Rep. 4, 4367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kimball, R., Ross, M., 2015. The Kimball Group Reader. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Aneva, B., Kouteva-Guentcheva, M. (Eds.), 2015. Nonlinear Mathematical Physics and Natural Hazards: Selected Papers from the International School and Workshop held in Sofia, Bulgaria, 28 November – 02 December, 2013, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Dias, P.M.C., Stuchi, T.J., 2011. Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke and the Mystery of the Orbit, in: Krause, D., Videira, A. (Eds.), Brazilian Studies in Philosophy and History of Science: An Account of Recent Works, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 77–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weather and Climate Extremes.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. The World’s Rarest Wild Dog Has Not Gone Extinct After All [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. School Facilities: Accessibility for the Disabled Still an Issue (No. HEHS-96-73). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grace-McCaskey, C.A., 2012. Fishermen, Politics, and Participation: An Ethnographic Examination of Commercial Fisheries Management in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein, N., 2016. 22 Unclaimed Bodies Endured a Grim Detour Before Burial. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cho, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cho, 2014; Rogers and Seddon, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rogers and Seddon, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeather and Climate Extremes
AbbreviationWeather Clim. Extrem.
ISSN (print)2212-0947
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles