How to format your references using the Weather and Climate Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weather and Climate Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Silverberg, R., 2000. Pluto story. Nature 403, 367.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chaudhari, K., Pradeep, T., 2014. Spatiotemporal mapping of three dimensional rotational dynamics of single ultrasmall gold nanorods. Sci. Rep. 4, 5948.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, L., Ploessl, K., Kung, H.F., 2013. Chemistry. Expanding the scope of fluorine tags for PET imaging. Science 342, 429–430.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schwab, J.M., Chiang, N., Arita, M., Serhan, C.N., 2007. Resolvin E1 and protectin D1 activate inflammation-resolution programmes. Nature 447, 869–874.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ansons, A.M., Davis, H., 2008. Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Max, M.D., 2006. Economic Geology of Natural Gas Hydrate, Coastal Systems and Continental Margins. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, L., Biswas, S., 2012. Digital Curvatures Applied to 3D Object Analysis and Recognition: A Case Study, in: Barneva, R.P., Brimkov, V.E., Aggarwal, J.K. (Eds.), Combinatorial Image Analaysis: 15th International Workshop, IWCIA 2012, Austin, TX, USA, November 28-30, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 45–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weather and Climate Extremes.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Black Hole Left Almost “Naked” After Galaxy Collision [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-98-13(3)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dandavate, R., 2006. Building Cultural Understanding Through Cultural Exchange (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2016. That Padres Pitcher, She’s Got a Mean Screwball. New York Times AR118.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Silverberg, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chaudhari and Pradeep, 2014; Silverberg, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chaudhari and Pradeep, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwab et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeather and Climate Extremes
AbbreviationWeather Clim. Extrem.
ISSN (print)2212-0947
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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