How to format your references using the Weather and Climate Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weather and Climate Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E., 2003. Cancer fears cast doubts on future of gene therapy. Nature 421, 678.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelemen, P.B., Hirth, G., 2007. A periodic shear-heating mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes in the mantle. Nature 446, 787–790.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dian, B.C., Clarkson, J.R., Zwier, T.S., 2004. Direct measurement of energy thresholds to conformational isomerization in tryptamine. Science 303, 1169–1173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ciccone, D.N., Su, H., Hevi, S., Gay, F., Lei, H., Bajko, J., Xu, G., Li, E., Chen, T., 2009. KDM1B is a histone H3K4 demethylase required to establish maternal genomic imprints. Nature 461, 415–418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yevick, D., Yevick, H., 2014. Fundamental Math and Physics for Scientists and Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Elkadi, M., Mourrain, B., Piene, R. (Eds.), 2006. Algebraic Geometry and Geometric Modeling, Mathematics and Visualization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Herrera, F., Ventura, S., Bello, R., Cornelis, C., Zafra, A., Sánchez-Tarragó, D., Vluymans, S., 2016. Bag-Based Classification Methods, in: Ventura, S., Bello, R., Cornelis, C., Zafra, A., Sánchez-Tarragó, D., Vluymans, S. (Eds.), Multiple Instance Learning: Foundations and Algorithms. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 99–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weather and Climate Extremes.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Lab-grown Esophagus Implanted in Rat [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Technology: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century (No. T-HEHS-95-127). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saurage-Altenloh, S.M., 2017. The Measured Influence of Supplier CSR on Brand Performance Expectations in B2B Relationships (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Gathering in the Boss’s Office, This Time to Honor Him. New York Times B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Check, 2003; Kelemen and Hirth, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelemen and Hirth, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ciccone et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeather and Climate Extremes
AbbreviationWeather Clim. Extrem.
ISSN (print)2212-0947
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles