How to format your references using the International Journal of Ambient Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Ambient Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chi, Kelly Rae. 2015. “Masculinity: Men’s Makeover.” Nature 526 (7572): S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitch, W. Tecumseh, and Marc D. Hauser. 2004. “Computational Constraints on Syntactic Processing in a Nonhuman Primate.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5656): 377–380.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ambrose, Karen V., Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer, and Faith C. Belanger. 2014. “Horizontal Gene Transfer of a Bacterial Insect Toxin Gene into the Epichloë Fungal Symbionts of Grasses.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5562.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhu, Yihua, Jianfu Zhuang, Xianglian Ge, Xiao Zhang, Zheng Wang, Ji Sun, Juhua Yang, and Feng Gu. 2013. “Identifcation of a Novel Mutation p.I240T in the FRMD7 Gene in a Family with Congenital Nystagmus.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 3084.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertein, Jean-Claude, and Roger Ceschi. 2013. Discrete Stochastic Processes and Optimal Filtering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Koehn, Daryl, and Dawn Elm, eds. 2014. Aesthetics and Business Ethics. Vol. 41. Issues in Business Ethics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Blackshaw, Ian, and Thilo Pachmann. 2016. “CAS Provisional and Conservatory Measures and Other Options to Be Granted Interim Legal Relief.” In Yearbook of International Sports Arbitration 2015, edited by Antoine Duval and Antonio Rigozzi, 93–110. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Ambient Energy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Precision Medicine Offers The Hope Of Cures Made Just For You.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Need for Disclosing Items Developed in Programs Funded Under Federal Grants. 093038. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pederson, Heather M. 2012. “Decreasing Blame and Building Therapeutic Alliance: Clarifying Central Change Processes in Functional Family Therapy.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2013. “The Gossip Just Won’t Stop.” New York Times, June 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chi 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chi 2015; Fitch and Hauser 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fitch and Hauser 2004)
  • Three authors: (Ambrose, Koppenhöfer, and Belanger 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Ambient Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Ambient Energy
ISSN (print)0143-0750
ISSN (online)2162-8246
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Building and Construction

Other styles