How to format your references using the Experimental Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Foulger, G.R., 2006. Geophysics. Toward “supervolcano” technology. Science 313, 768–769.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhattachan, A., D’Odorico, P., 2014. Can land use intensification in the Mallee, Australia increase the supply of soluble iron to the Southern Ocean? Sci. Rep. 4, 6009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eagleman, D.M., Jacobson, J.E., Sejnowski, T.J., 2004. Perceived luminance depends on temporal context. Nature 428, 854–856.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ries, G., Heller, W., Puchta, H., Sandermann, H., Seidlitz, H.K., Hohn, B., 2000. Elevated UV-B radiation reduces genome stability in plants. Nature 406, 98–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P.I., 2006. A Manager’s Guide to the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Blowey, J., Jensen, M. (Eds.), 2012. Frontiers in Numerical Analysis - Durham 2010, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Costa, F.O., Antunes, P.M., 2012. The Contribution of the Barcode of Life Initiative to the Discovery and Monitoring of Biodiversity, in: Mendonca, A., Cunha, A., Chakrabarti, R. (Eds.), Natural Resources, Sustainability and Humanity: A Comprehensive View. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 37–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Parasitology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Offshore Wind Farms Are Havens For Seals [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. FAA Budget: Management Attention Needed for Future Investment Decisions (No. T-RCED-94-195). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prasad, H., 2017. Removing a Thorn with a Thorn: Evaluating India’s Use of Militias in Counterinsurgency (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2005. Justices Explore U.S. Authority Over States on Assisted Suicide. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Foulger, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bhattachan and D’Odorico, 2014; Foulger, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bhattachan and D’Odorico, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ries et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Parasitology
AbbreviationExp. Parasitol.
ISSN (print)0014-4894
General Medicine

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