How to format your references using the Experimental Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neumann, K., 2003. Anthropology. New Guinea: a cradle of agriculture. Science 301, 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harms, M.J., Thornton, J.W., 2014. Historical contingency and its biophysical basis in glucocorticoid receptor evolution. Nature 512, 203–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinrichs, K.-U., Hmelo, L.R., Sylva, S.P., 2003. Molecular fossil record of elevated methane levels in late Pleistocene coastal waters. Science 299, 1214–1217.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lou, K., Qian, S.-X., Ren, Z.-C., Tu, C., Li, Y., Wang, H.-T., 2013. Femtosecond laser processing by using patterned vector optical fields. Sci. Rep. 3, 2281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker, D., 2016. International Valuation Standards. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Srivastava, P.S., Narula, A., Srivastava, S. (Eds.), 2005. Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Motik, B., 2010. Combining Description Logics, Description Graphs, and Rules, in: Croitoru, M., Ferré, S., Lukose, D. (Eds.), Conceptual Structures: From Information to Intelligence: 18th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2010, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, July 26-30, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 10–12.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Parasitology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Melting Moments: A Look Under East Antarctica’s Biggest Glacier [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Information Technology: DLA Should Strengthen Business Systems Modernization Architecture and Investment Activities (No. GAO-01-631). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Papacostaki, M., 2010. Under the black sun (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1993. Political Memo; Re-examining the Fine Print On Clinton’s Tax Promises. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neumann, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Harms and Thornton, 2014; Neumann, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harms and Thornton, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lou et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Parasitology
AbbreviationExp. Parasitol.
ISSN (print)0014-4894
General Medicine

Other styles