How to format your references using the Experimental Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morton, O., 2000. PARTICLE PHYSICS: CERN Gives Higgs Hunters Extra Month to Collect Data. Science 289, 2014–2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fang, J., McCutchan, T.F., 2002. Thermoregulation in a parasite’s life cycle. Nature 418, 742.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeifer, R., Lungarella, M., Iida, F., 2007. Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics. Science 318, 1088–1093.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
de Pater, I., Hammel, H.B., Gibbard, S.G., Showalter, M.R., 2006. New dust belts of Uranus: one ring, two ring, red ring, blue ring. Science 312, 92–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Relethford, J.H., 2017. 50 Great Myths of Human Evolution. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Myers, E.N., Ferris, R.L. (Eds.), 2007. Salivary Gland Disorders. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gu, M., Aslanyan, Z., Probst, C.W., 2016. Understanding How Components of Organisations Contribute to Attacks, in: Brumley, B.B., Röning, J. (Eds.), Secure IT Systems: 21st Nordic Conference, NordSec 2016, Oulu, Finland, November 2-4, 2016. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 54–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Parasitology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Scientists Discover New Shape When Playing With Rubber Bands [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-96-18(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, S.S., 2006. Identification of Stress-Responsive Genes in the Early Larval Stage of the Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lear, S., 2010. Mirror, Mirror. New York Times BR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morton, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Fang and McCutchan, 2002; Morton, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fang and McCutchan, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (de Pater et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Parasitology
AbbreviationExp. Parasitol.
ISSN (print)0014-4894
General Medicine

Other styles