How to format your references using the Waves in Random and Complex Media citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waves in Random and Complex Media. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Skotheim JM. Cell signaling. To divide or not to divide. Science. 2009;324:476–477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schindler CS, Jacobsen EN. Chemistry. A new twist on cooperative catalysis. Science. 2013;340:1052–1053.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brooks CL 3rd, Onuchic JN, Wales DJ. Statistical thermodynamics. Taking a walk on a landscape. Science. 2001;293:612–613.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee M-H, Kumar A, Park K-B, et al. A low-noise solid-state nanopore platform based on a highly insulating substrate. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eylert B. The Mobile Multimedia Business. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Prentiss A, Kuijt I, Chatters JC, editors. Macroevolution in Human Prehistory: Evolutionary Theory and Processual Archaeology. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Duguet E, Treguer-Delapierre M, Delville M-H. Functionalised Inorganic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications. In: Boisseau P, Houdy P, Lahmani M, editors. Nanoscience: Nanobiotechnology and Nanobiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 129–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waves in Random and Complex Media.

Blog post
Davis J. Crows Rival Most Mammals with Their Cognitive Ability [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Needed to Avoid Disruption of Essential Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998. Report No.: T-AIMD-98-117. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Szurley JC. The use of edge detection techniques to analyze thoracoabdominal movement and infer breathing volume [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George J. My Family’s Flop. New York Times. 2011 Jan 2;WK10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWaves in Random and Complex Media
AbbreviationWaves Random Complex Media
ISSN (print)1745-5030
ISSN (online)1745-5049
ScopeGeneral Engineering
General Physics and Astronomy

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