How to format your references using the Biomedical Optics Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Optics Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Poitrasson, "Geochemistry. Probes of the ancient and the inaccessible," Science 323(5916), 882–883 (2009).
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Zhu and J. Wang, "Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators," Sci. Rep. 4, 7441 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Sugase, H. J. Dyson, and P. E. Wright, "Mechanism of coupled folding and binding of an intrinsically disordered protein," Nature 447(7147), 1021–1025 (2007).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Kita, Y. Ohno, H. Ohno, and M. Kawasaki, "Quantum Hall effect in polar oxide heterostructures," Science 315(5817), 1388–1391 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. B. Miller, Mathematics and Statistics for Financial Risk Management (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013).
An edited book
P. Anthony, M. Ishizuka, and D. Lukose, eds., PRICAI 2012: Trends in Artificial Intelligence: 12th Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Kuching, Malaysia, September 3-7, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2012), 7458.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Etemad, M. Moshiri, and S. A. Moallem, "Chronic Toxicity of Organophosphorus Compounds," in Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorus Compounds, M. Balali-Mood and M. Abdollahi, eds. (Springer, 2014), pp. 79–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Optics Express.

Blog post
E. Andrew, "Amazonian Turtle Mothers “Talk” To Their Offspring,"


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Electronic Signature: Sanction of the Department of State’s System (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Mednick Takami, "Chief Diversity Officers in U.S. Higher Education: Impacting the Campus Climate for Diversity," Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, "Rodriguez Stands Alone, and That’s a Good Thing," New York Times (February 26, 2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Optics Express
ISSN (online)2156-7085

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