How to format your references using the The American Midland Naturalist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Midland Naturalist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liechti, K. M. 2015. Materials science. Understanding friction in layered materials. Science, 348:632–633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siders, C. W. and A. Cavalleri. 2003. Materials science. Creating transient crystal structures with light. Science, 300:591–592.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, F., X. Chen and P. Vitousek. 2013. Chinese agriculture: An experiment for the world. Nature, 497:33–35.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sumner, S., W. O. H. Hughes, J. S. Pedersen and J. J. Boomsma. 2004. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly. Nature, 428:35–36.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiGrado, B. D. and G. A. Thorp. 2007. The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Petersen, T. J., S. E. Sprich and S. Wilhelm (eds). 2016. The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, New York, NY. XII, 327 p. 25 illus., 1 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Santos, J. E. and P. M. Gauzellino. 2016. Waves in a fluid-saturated poroelastic matrix composed of two weakly coupled solids. p. 79–95. In: P. M. Gauzellino (ed.). Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Midland Naturalist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Yellowstone Earthquakes Reveal A Volcanic System Six Times Bigger Than We Thought. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Department of Transportation: Experts Identified Areas for Operational Improvements without Implementing Organizational Changes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu, H. 2009. Parasitism of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Termitidae) by entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae: Heterorhabditidae). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2007. Chief Justice Advocates Higher Pay for Judiciary.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liechti, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Siders and Cavalleri, 2003; Liechti, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Siders and Cavalleri, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Sumner et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Midland Naturalist
AbbreviationAm. Midl. Nat.
ISSN (print)0003-0031
ISSN (online)1938-4238
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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