How to format your references using the Water Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.A. Buffett, Geophysics. The thermal state of Earth’s core, Science. 299 (2003) 1675–1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
U.G. Wortmann, B.M. Chernyavsky, Effect of evaporite deposition on Early Cretaceous carbon and sulphur cycling, Nature. 446 (2007) 654–656.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Hu, C.C. Lee, M.W. Ribbe, Extending the carbon chain: hydrocarbon formation catalyzed by vanadium/molybdenum nitrogenases, Science. 333 (2011) 753–755.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Hörz, R.A. Muller, T.A. Becker, T.S. Culler, D.B. Karner, P.R. Renne, Time-variable cratering rates?, Science. 288 (2000) 2095a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Vander Vorst, A. Rosen, Y. Kotsuka, RF/Microwave Interaction with Biological Tissues, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
N.C. Soguel, P. Jaccard, eds., Governance and Performance of Education Systems, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
J.L. Pio-Abreu, C.V. Oliveira, On measuring tele, in: C. Stadler, M. Wieser, K. Kirk (Eds.), Psychodrama. Empirical Research and Science 2, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, 2016: pp. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Security.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, New Metamaterial Transmits Light With No Energy Loss, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Validity and Comparability of Quantitative Data Presented by the President’s Council on Integrity and Efficiency on Inspectors General Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.M. Spisak, Particulation, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, For Mets, It’s Injury After Injury, Year After Year, New York Times. (2017) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Security
ISSN (print)2468-3124

Other styles