How to format your references using the Journal of Otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ijspeert, A.J., 2014. Biorobotics: using robots to emulate and investigate agile locomotion. Science 346, 196–203.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, V.J., Lekkerkerker, H.N.W., 2002. Insights into phase transition kinetics from colloid science. Nature 416, 811–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson, F.J., Downard, A.J., Baronian, K.H., 2014. Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sci. Rep. 4, 5216.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Graves, L.M., Guy, H.I., Kozlowski, P., Huang, M., Lazarowski, E., Pope, R.M., Collins, M.A., Dahlstrand, E.N., Earp, H.S., 3rd, Evans, D.R., 2000. Regulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by MAP kinase. Nature 403, 328–332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aichinger, M., Binder, A., 2013. A Workout in Computational Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Jiang, B., Yao, X. (Eds.), 2010. Geospatial Analysis and Modelling of Urban Structure and Dynamics, GeoJournal Library. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhattacharya, S., Ghatak, K.P., 2012. Field Emission from Quantum-Confined III–V Semiconductors in the Presence of LightWaves, in: Ghatak, K.P. (Ed.), Fowler-Nordheim Field Emission: Effects in Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 187–230.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Otology.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. British Expedition Gets Go-Ahead To Look For “Missing” Meteorites In Antarctica [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Need for Active Alcohol Public Education Program (No. 105900). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glassett Farrelly, S., 2013. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Court Weighs Right to Guns, And Its Limits. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dyson, 2012; Russell, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and Lekkerkerker, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yue et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Otology
AbbreviationJ. Otol.
ISSN (print)1672-2930

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