How to format your references using the Journal of Otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mandavilli, A., 2013. Leukaemia. Nature 498, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heilbron, J.L., Bynum, W.F., 2003. 1904 and all that. Nature 426, 761–764.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martinón-Torres, M., Rehren, T., Freestone, I.C., 2006. Mullite and the mystery of Hessian wares. Nature 444, 437–438.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sipilä, M., Berndt, T., Petäjä, T., Brus, D., Vanhanen, J., Stratmann, F., Patokoski, J., Mauldin, R.L., 3rd, Hyvärinen, A.-P., Lihavainen, H., Kulmala, M., 2010. The role of sulfuric acid in atmospheric nucleation. Science 327, 1243–1246.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, S.R., Gregory, W.M., Twelves, C., Brown, J., 2014. A Practical Guide to Designing Phase II Trials in Oncology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Buchleitner, A., Viviescas, C., Tiersch, M. (Eds.), 2009. Entanglement and Decoherence: Foundations and Modern Trends, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Özkaya, N., Nordin, M., Goldsheyder, D., Leger, D., 2012. Statics: Systems in Equilibrium, in: Nordin, M., Goldsheyder, D., Leger, D. (Eds.), Fundamentals of Biomechanics: Equilibrium, Motion, and Deformation. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 35–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Otology.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Why Pluto May Have A Large Ocean Beneath Its Icy Surface [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. FCC: Non-Voice, Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service (No. OGC-98-11). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hirschy, M.A., 2015. Differences in usage of federally funded insurance options by women (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Justices’ Vote in Death Case Is Close Again, but Differing. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mandavilli, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Heilbron and Bynum, 2003; Mandavilli, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heilbron and Bynum, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Sipilä et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Otology
AbbreviationJ. Otol.
ISSN (print)1672-2930

Other styles