How to format your references using the Journal of Otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van der Oost, J., 2013. Molecular biology. New tool for genome surgery. Science 339, 768–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellington, A.D., Bull, J.J., 2005. Evolution. Changing the cofactor diet of an enzyme. Science 310, 454–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feldman, M.W., Lewontin, R.C., King, M.-C., 2003. Race: a genetic melting-pot. Nature 424, 374.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mohamed, N.-V., Plouffe, V., Rémillard-Labrosse, G., Planel, E., Leclerc, N., 2014. Starvation and inhibition of lysosomal function increased tau secretion by primary cortical neurons. Sci. Rep. 4, 5715.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaynor, G.H., 2014. Decisions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nambiar, R., Poess, M. (Eds.), 2013. Selected Topics in Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking: 4th TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, August 27, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Krugman, S.D., Lane, W.G., 2014. Fatal Child Abuse, in: Korbin, J.E., Krugman, R.D. (Eds.), Handbook of Child Maltreatment, Child Maltreatment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 99–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Otology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Mars Looks Weirdly Different Everywhere We Look [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Tax System Modernization: An Assessment of IRS’ Design Master Plan (No. IMTEC-91-53BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bottorff, E.A., 2011. The community college baccalaureate: A study of capital costs in Florida (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markowitz, J.C., 2016. There’s Such a Thing as Too Much Neuroscience. New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van der Oost, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ellington and Bull, 2005; van der Oost, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellington and Bull, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Mohamed et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Otology
AbbreviationJ. Otol.
ISSN (print)1672-2930

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