How to format your references using the Journal of Otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pohl, F., 2000. Brain drain. Nature 408, 409.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz, T.W., Sakmar, T.P., 2011. Structural biology: snapshot of a signalling complex. Nature 477, 540–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, G., Zhuchenko, O., Kuspa, A., 2007. Immune-like phagocyte activity in the social amoeba. Science 317, 678–681.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Petford, N., Cruden, A.R., McCaffrey, K.J., Vigneresse, J.L., 2000. Granite magma formation, transport and emplacement in the Earth’s crust. Nature 408, 669–673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jank, W., Shmueli, G., 2010. Modeling Online Auctions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pina, M., Gontier, N. (Eds.), 2014. The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Interdisciplinary Evolution Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lone, S.A., Malik, A., Padaria, J.C., 2014. Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis for Prevention of Environmental Deterioration, in: Malik, A., Grohmann, E., Akhtar, R. (Eds.), Environmental Deterioration and Human Health: Natural and Anthropogenic Determinants. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 73–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Otology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Pioneers Of Quantum Computing Are Among The 2015 Eureka Prize Winners [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Potential for Widespread Disruption Calls for Strong Leadership and Partnerships (No. AIMD-98-85). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, T., 2017. Project Motherhood: A Grant Proposal Project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2011. Alabama Governor Fails to Prevent Jefferson County’s Record $4 Billion Bankruptcy Filing. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pohl, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pohl, 2000; Schwartz and Sakmar, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwartz and Sakmar, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Petford et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Otology
AbbreviationJ. Otol.
ISSN (print)1672-2930

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