How to format your references using the Journal of Otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingrich, N., 2000. SCIENCE PRIORITIES: An Opportunities-Based Science Budget. Science 290, 1303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu, H., Li, B., 2013. Wavelength-converted wave-guiding in dye-doped polymer nanofibers. Sci. Rep. 3, 1674.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, J., Pray, C., Rozelle, S., 2002. Enhancing the crops to feed the poor. Nature 418, 678–684.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krol, K.M., Kamboj, S.K., Curran, H.V., Grossmann, T., 2014. Breastfeeding experience differentially impacts recognition of happiness and anger in mothers. Sci. Rep. 4, 7006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, H., Li, G., 2006. OFDM-Based Broadband Wireless Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mityushev, V.V., Ruzhansky, M.V. (Eds.), 2015. Current Trends in Analysis and Its Applications: Proceedings of the 9th ISAAC Congress, Kraków 2013, Trends in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Howe, R.E., 2012. On the Tendency Toward Convexity of the Vector Sum of Sets, in: Terlaky, T., Curtis, F.E. (Eds.), Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications: Selected Contributions from the MOPTA 2010 Conference, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 67–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Otology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. You Really Can Read People’s Emotions Through Their Eyes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Airport Finance: Preliminary Analysis Indicates Proposed Changes in the Airport Improvement Program May Not Resolve Funding Needs for Smaller Airports (No. GAO-07-617T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCollough, K.D., 2017. Applying Military Developments in Netcentricity to Civilian Emergency Management (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016. Considering the Lives That Shape Our Own. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gingrich, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gingrich, 2000; Yu and Li, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yu and Li, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Krol et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Otology
AbbreviationJ. Otol.
ISSN (print)1672-2930

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