How to format your references using the Journal of Otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis, K., 2012. Antibiotics: Recover the lost art of drug discovery. Nature 485, 439–440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arnold, D.H., Johnston, A., 2003. Motion-induced spatial conflict. Nature 425, 181–184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Losos, J.B., Hillis, D.M., Greene, H.W., 2012. Evolution. Who speaks with a forked tongue? Science 338, 1428–1429.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wen, Q.-Y., Tian, W., Mao, Q., Chen, Z., Liu, W.-W., Yang, Q.-H., Sanderson, M., Zhang, H.-W., 2014. Graphene based all-optical spatial terahertz modulator. Sci. Rep. 4, 7409.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abid, M.M., 2006. Spacecraft Sensors. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Nielsen, F., Barbaresco, F. (Eds.), 2013. Geometric Science of Information: First International Conference, GSI 2013, Paris, France, August 28-30, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Aurnhammer, M., Hanappe, P., Steels, L., 2006. Augmenting Navigation for Collaborative Tagging with Emergent Semantics, in: Cruz, I., Decker, S., Allemang, D., Preist, C., Schwabe, D., Mika, P., Uschold, M., Aroyo, L.M. (Eds.), The Semantic Web - ISWC 2006: 5th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2006, Athens, GA, USA, November 5-9, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 58–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Otology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Two Critically Endangered Tamarins Freeze To Death Due To Zookeeper Error [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Student Achievement Standards and Testing (No. T-PEMD-93-1). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills, A.D., 2016. Strategic school solutions: A capacity building framework for leaders accelerating 21st century teaching and learning (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L., 2013. Taking Their Very Sweet Time. New York Times ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lewis, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Arnold and Johnston, 2003; Lewis, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arnold and Johnston, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Wen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Otology
AbbreviationJ. Otol.
ISSN (print)1672-2930

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