How to format your references using the Water Research X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Research X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bekoff, M., 2002. Animal reflections. Nature 419, 255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strzepek, R.F., Harrison, P.J., 2004. Photosynthetic architecture differs in coastal and oceanic diatoms. Nature 431, 689–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jackson, A., Mavoori, J., Fetz, E.E., 2006. Long-term motor cortex plasticity induced by an electronic neural implant. Nature 444, 56–60.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eden, A., Gaudet, F., Waghmare, A., Jaenisch, R., 2003. Chromosomal instability and tumors promoted by DNA hypomethylation. Science 300, 455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuo, J.B., Lin, S.-C., 2002. Low-Voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.
An edited book
Evers, D., Fuller, M., Runehov, A., Sæther, K.-W. (Eds.), 2016. Issues in Science and Theology: Do Emotions Shape the World?, Issues in Science and Religion: Publications of the European Society for the Study of Science and Theology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Yamada, S., Tamura, Y., 2016. Stochastic Differential Equation Models for OSS Reliability Analysis, in: Tamura, Y. (Ed.), OSS Reliability Measurement and Assessment, Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Research X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Banned in Europe, Safe in the U.S [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. School-Age Children: Poverty and Diversity Challenge Schools Nationwide (No. T-HEHS-94-125). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolodkowicz, R., 2008. Leadership qualities and employee-student future intentions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Indians Get Contributions and Confidence From Unexpected Source. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bekoff, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bekoff, 2002; Strzepek and Harrison, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strzepek and Harrison, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Eden et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Research X
ISSN (print)2589-9147

Other styles