How to format your references using the Water Research X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Research X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carpenter, B.K., 2011. Chemistry. Taking the high road and getting there before you. Science 332, 1269–1270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katsir, Y., Marmur, A., 2014. Rate of bubble coalescence following quasi-static approach: screening and neutralization of the electric double layer. Sci. Rep. 4, 4266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takahashi, F., Matsushima, M., Honkura, Y., 2005. Simulations of a quasi-Taylor state geomagnetic field including polarity reversals on the Earth Simulator. Science 309, 459–461.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Giampieri, G., Dougherty, M.K., Smith, E.J., Russell, C.T., 2006. A regular period for Saturn’s magnetic field that may track its internal rotation. Nature 441, 62–64.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner, D.J., 2016. The ETF Handbook. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Park, J.J., Yang, L.T., Lee, C. (Eds.), 2011. Future Information Technology: 6th International Conference, FutureTech 2011, Loutraki, Greece, June 28-30, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jorge, M.L.C., Pardo, T.A.S., 2010. Formalizing CST-Based Content Selection Operations, in: Pardo, T.A.S., Branco, A., Klautau, A., Vieira, R., Lima, V.L.S. de (Eds.), Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language: 9th International Conference, PROPOR 2010, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, April 27-30, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 25–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Research X.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. JAXA Releases Mind-Blowing Shots Of The Moon’s Surface [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. General Aviation Airports: Oversight and Funding (No. T-RCED-99-214). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoefer, P.D., 2010. A David against Goliath: The American veterans committee’s challenge to the American legion in the 1950s (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D., 2008. Major Barbara. New York Times BR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carpenter, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Carpenter, 2011; Katsir and Marmur, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Katsir and Marmur, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Giampieri et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Research X
ISSN (print)2589-9147

Other styles