How to format your references using the Water Research X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Research X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blanchard, J.L., 2015. Climate change: A rewired food web. Nature 527, 173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
Correia, A.C., Laskar, J., 2001. The four final rotation states of Venus. Nature 411, 767–770.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashiro, H., Isomura, N., Sakai, K., 2014. Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan. Sci. Rep. 4, 6032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, H.-M., Lee, D.-Y., Choi, M.S., Qu, D., Liu, X., Ra, C.-H., Yoo, W.J., 2014. Metal-semiconductor barrier modulation for high photoresponse in transition metal dichalcogenide field effect transistors. Sci. Rep. 4, 4041.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J.B., Johannesson, R., 2005. Understanding Information Transmission. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Liu, Z. (Ed.), 2010. Essentials of Chinese Medicine. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Kyriazis, D., Menychtas, A., Varvarigou, T., Silvestri, F., Laforenza, D., Tserpes, K., 2007. An Open Architecture for QoS Information in Business Grids, in: Priol, T., Vanneschi, M. (Eds.), Towards Next Generation Grids: Proceedings of the CoreGRID Symposium 2007. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Research X.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. How Do You Test The Multiverse? With Bubbles [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Globe Safety Product’s Inquiry Regarding Firefighters Breathing Apparatus Developed for NASA by Scott Aviation Company (No. PSAD-77-68). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sampson, R., 2010. The effects of foster care on children: A comparison of 18th century through modern day foster care practices (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Orthodox Church Berates Vatican. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blanchard, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Blanchard, 2015; Correia and Laskar, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Correia and Laskar, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Research X
ISSN (print)2589-9147

Other styles