How to format your references using the Water Research X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Research X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stern, P., 2009. Neuroscience methods. So you want to learn how to network? Introduction. Science 326, 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Small, E.M., Olson, E.N., 2011. Pervasive roles of microRNAs in cardiovascular biology. Nature 469, 336–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walden, H., Podgorski, M.S., Schulman, B.A., 2003. Insights into the ubiquitin transfer cascade from the structure of the activating enzyme for NEDD8. Nature 422, 330–334.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hyland, C., Mertz, A.F., Forscher, P., Dufresne, E., 2014. Dynamic peripheral traction forces balance stable neurite tension in regenerating Aplysia bag cell neurons. Sci. Rep. 4, 4961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena, F.B., 2008. Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Zhang, X., Wu, Z., Sha, X. (Eds.), 2015. Embedded System Technology: 13th National Conference, ESTC 2015, Beijing, China, October 10–11, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Hinow, P., Radunskaya, A.E., 2014. The Mathematics of Drug Delivery, in: Eladdadi, A., Kim, P., Mallet, D. (Eds.), Mathematical Models of Tumor-Immune System Dynamics, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 109–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Research X.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2017. What Are The Signs Of Biased Science Papers? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Computer-Based Patient Records: Subcommittee Questions Concerning VA and DOD Efforts to Achieve a Two-Way Exchange of Health Data (No. GAO-04-691R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bardhoshi, G., 2012. The Relationship Between Assignment of Non-Counseling Duties and Burnout Among Professional School Counselors (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rao, T., 2016. Cool Ranch. New York Times MM30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stern, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Small and Olson, 2011; Stern, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Small and Olson, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Hyland et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Research X
ISSN (print)2589-9147

Other styles