How to format your references using the Water Research X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Research X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nel, A., 2005. Atmosphere. Air pollution-related illness: effects of particles. Science 308, 804–806.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koester, H.J., Johnston, D., 2005. Target cell-dependent normalization of transmitter release at neocortical synapses. Science 308, 863–866.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gaucher, E.A., Govindarajan, S., Ganesh, O.K., 2008. Palaeotemperature trend for Precambrian life inferred from resurrected proteins. Nature 451, 704–707.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hosoi, T., Honda, M., Oba, T., Ozawa, K., 2013. ER stress upregulated PGE₂/IFNγ-induced IL-6 expression and down-regulated iNOS expression in glial cells. Sci. Rep. 3, 3388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoskins, B.J., James, I.N., 2014. Fluid Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmosphere. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester.
An edited book
Hovers, E., Kuhn, S.L. (Eds.), 2006. Transitions Before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age, Interdisciplinary Contributions To Archaeology. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Golkar, S., 2015. Student Activism, Social Media, and Authoritarian Rule in Iran, in: Epstein, I. (Ed.), The Whole World Is Texting: Youth Protest in the Information Age. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 61–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Research X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Cuba Becomes First Ever Country To Eliminate Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Medicare Transaction System: Serious Managerial and Technical Weaknesses Threaten Modernization (No. T-AIMD-97-91). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calderwood, A., 2014. Improving the singer’s understanding of bebop language: Transcription application (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Atlanta Firm Lures Veteran Deal Maker Back to Law. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nel, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Koester and Johnston, 2005; Nel, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koester and Johnston, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Hosoi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Research X
ISSN (print)2589-9147

Other styles