How to format your references using the Global Environmental Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Environmental Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lienhardt, C., 2014. Fundamental research is the key to eliminating TB. Nature 507, 401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morata, G., Struhl, G., 2014. Developmental biology: Tethered wings. Nature 505, 162–163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, P.T.J., de Roode, J.C., Fenton, A., 2015. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology. Science 349, 1259504.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cohen, I., Li, H., Hougland, J.L., Mrksich, M., Nagel, S.R., 2001. Using selective withdrawal to coat microparticles. Science 292, 265–267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gable, J., Herrmann, T., 2016. Counselling Skills for Dietitians. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
van der Laan, M.J., 2011. Targeted Learning: Causal Inference for Observational and Experimental Data, Springer Series in Statistics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Yeom, K.-W., 2007. Immune-inspired Algorithm for Anomaly Detection, in: Nedjah, N., Abraham, A., Mourelle, L. de M. (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Information Assurance and Security, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 129–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Environmental Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Propaganda Or Cost Of Innovation? The High Price Of New Drugs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Federal Agencies’ Maintenance of Computer Programs: Expensive and Undermanaged (No. AFMD-81-25). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo, S.X., 2009. Theoretical models of olfactory discrimination in Drosophila (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2002. Claude Brown’s Harlem, Still on the Mind. New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lienhardt, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lienhardt, 2014; Morata and Struhl, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morata and Struhl, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Cohen et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Environmental Change
AbbreviationGlob. Environ. Change
ISSN (print)0959-3780
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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