How to format your references using the Global Environmental Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Environmental Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cave, R.J., 2009. Chemistry. Inducing chirality with circularly polarized light. Science 323, 1435–1436.
A journal article with 2 authors
Atkinson, T., Leeder, M., 2008. Geology. Canyon cutting on a grand time scale. Science 319, 1343–1344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mason, G.J., Cooper, J., Clarebrough, C., 2001. Frustrations of fur-farmed mink. Nature 410, 35–36.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Veneault-Fourrey, C., Barooah, M., Egan, M., Wakley, G., Talbot, N.J., 2006. Autophagic fungal cell death is necessary for infection by the rice blast fungus. Science 312, 580–583.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diab, W.W., Frazier, H.M., 2011. Ethernet in the First Mile. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brooke, P.J., 2008. Practical Distributed Processing, Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Dhillon, S.K., Paunoo, B., Sidhu, A.S., 2013. Framework for Biodiversity Information Retrieval in Malaysia, in: Sidhu, A.S., Dhillon, S.K. (Eds.), Advances in Biomedical Infrastructure 2013: Proceedings of International Symposium on Biomedical Data Infrastructure (BDI 2013), Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 15–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Environmental Change.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. The Single Best Type Of Exercise For Your Brain, According To Scientists [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. School District Claim to Department of Air Force (No. B-193864). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nash, M.C., 2017. Reading Achievement: A Study of Perceptions of First-Grade Teachers and the Relationship Between Attendance and Reading Achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S., 2015. Leadership on View in ‘ArtWalk’ Near West Point. New York Times WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cave, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Atkinson and Leeder, 2008; Cave, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Atkinson and Leeder, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Veneault-Fourrey et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Environmental Change
AbbreviationGlob. Environ. Change
ISSN (print)0959-3780
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles