How to format your references using the Global Environmental Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Environmental Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nossal, G.J.V., 2004. Mentors and manipulation. Nature 429, 811.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeLong, E.F., Karl, D.M., 2005. Genomic perspectives in microbial oceanography. Nature 437, 336–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coleman, S.W., Patricelli, G.L., Borgia, G., 2004. Variable female preferences drive complex male displays. Nature 428, 742–745.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Song, C.-L., Wang, Y.-L., Cheng, P., Jiang, Y.-P., Li, W., Zhang, T., Li, Z., He, K., Wang, L., Jia, J.-F., Hung, H.-H., Wu, C., Ma, X., Chen, X., Xue, Q.-K., 2011. Direct observation of nodes and twofold symmetry in FeSe superconductor. Science 332, 1410–1413.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer, J.H., Drew, L.J., 2010. Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bertino, E., 2010. Security for Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rees, D.A.S., Selim, A., Ennis-King, J.P., 2008. The Instability of Unsteady Boundary Layers in Porous Media, in: Vadász, P. (Ed.), Emerging Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Media: From Bioengineering and Microelectronics to Nanotechnology, Theory and Applications of Transport in Porous Media. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 85–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Environmental Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Embryonic Stem Cells Show Promise As MS Treatment In Mice [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor: Information on the Status and Cost of Needed Improvements (No. RCED-95-151BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naughton, C.C., 2013. Assessing Appropriate Technology Handwashing Stations in Mali, West Africa (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Horowitz, J., Alderman, L., 2017. Angry at E.U., Greece Warms to China’s Cash. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nossal, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (DeLong and Karl, 2005; Nossal, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DeLong and Karl, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Environmental Change
AbbreviationGlob. Environ. Change
ISSN (print)0959-3780
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles