How to format your references using the Global Environmental Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Environmental Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson, D., 2001. Weaving a social web. Nature 414, 587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silphaduang, U., Noga, E.J., 2001. Peptide antibiotics in mast cells of fish. Nature 414, 268–269.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dieterich, J., Cayol, V., Okubo, P., 2000. The use of earthquake rate changes as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano. Nature 408, 457–460.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Morel, C.M., Carvalheiro, J.R., Romero, C.N.P., Costa, E.A., Buss, P.M., 2007. The road to recovery. Nature 449, 180–182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Toy, M., 2012. Networks and Services. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Naunheimer, H., 2011. Automotive Transmissions: Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Greenbaum, B., Trifonov, V., Khiabanian, H., Levine, A., Rabadan, R., 2011. The Emergence of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza, in: Rappuoli, R., Del Giudice, G. (Eds.), Influenza Vaccines for the Future. Springer, Basel, pp. 95–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Environmental Change.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. 5 Myths About Sugar That Everyone Needs To Stop Believing [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Transportation Enhancements: Status of the $2.4 Billion Authorized for Nonmotorized Transportation (No. RCED-96-156). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, C., 2010. A psychoeducational support group for Vietnamese American family caregivers of stroke survivors: Grant writing thesis proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Tango On the Beach. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson, 2001; Silphaduang and Noga, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Silphaduang and Noga, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Morel et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Environmental Change
AbbreviationGlob. Environ. Change
ISSN (print)0959-3780
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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