How to format your references using the Global Environmental Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Environmental Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lupski, J.R., 2013. Genetics. Genome mosaicism--one human, multiple genomes. Science 341, 358–359.
A journal article with 2 authors
Synolakis, C., Foteinis, S., 2009. Choking on carbon emissions from Greek academic paperwork. Nature 461, 167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chung, K., Lee, C.-H., Yi, G.-C., 2010. Transferable GaN layers grown on ZnO-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices. Science 330, 655–657.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Côté, A.P., Benin, A.I., Ockwig, N.W., O’Keeffe, M., Matzger, A.J., Yaghi, O.M., 2005. Porous, crystalline, covalent organic frameworks. Science 310, 1166–1170.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, R.C., 2010. The Hedge Fund Book. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Miesenberger, K., Fels, D., Archambault, D., Peňáz, P., Zagler, W. (Eds.), 2014. Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 14th International Conference, ICCHP 2014, Paris, France, July 9-11, 2014, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Karmakar, A., 2015. E-Governance and Its Role in Infrastructure Services of UAE, Case Study—Dubai, in: Vinod Kumar, T.M. (Ed.), E-Governance for Smart Cities, Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements. Springer, Singapore, pp. 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Environmental Change.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Tall People Are Better Hunters In The Dark [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Highway Safety: Monitoring Practices To Show Compliance With Speed Limits Should Be Reexamined (No. RCED-88-93BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickinson, S., 2013. Best practices in integrating acquisitions (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Romero, S., Yardley, J., 2016. Francis Says Contraception Can Be Used to Slow Zika. New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lupski, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lupski, 2013; Synolakis and Foteinis, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Synolakis and Foteinis, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Côté et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Environmental Change
AbbreviationGlob. Environ. Change
ISSN (print)0959-3780
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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