How to format your references using the Global Environmental Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Environmental Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parthasarathy, H., 2002. From scepticism to acceptance. Nature 419, 4–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, N., Ren, J., 2014. Non-reciprocal geometric wave diode by engineering asymmetric shapes of nonlinear materials. Sci. Rep. 4, 6228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Soung, Y.H., Pruitt, K., Chung, J., 2014. Epigenetic silencing of ARRDC3 expression in basal-like breast cancer cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 3846.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Devries, G.A., Brunnbauer, M., Hu, Y., Jackson, A.M., Long, B., Neltner, B.T., Uzun, O., Wunsch, B.H., Stellacci, F., 2007. Divalent metal nanoparticles. Science 315, 358–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton, G., 2014. Microbiology of Drinking Water. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lai, T.L., 2008. Statistical Models and Methods for Financial Markets, Springer Texts in Statistics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaki, M.H., Hasan, O., Tahar, S., Al-Sammane, G., 2015. Framework for Formally Verifying Analog and Mixed-Signal Designs, in: Fakhfakh, M., Tlelo-Cuautle, E., Siarry, P. (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Analog and Mixed-Signal (AMS) and Radio-Frequency (RF) Circuit Design. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 115–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Environmental Change.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Time Crystals Are Now A Thing [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Mass Transit: Needs Projections Could Better Reflect Future Costs (No. RCED-93-61). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Loden, M.R., 2010. The rhetorical elephant in the room: How three political action committees are strategically [re]defining the U.S. Republican Party (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Court Veteran Remembers A Scary Start. New York Times A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parthasarathy, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Li and Ren, 2014; Parthasarathy, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Ren, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Devries et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Environmental Change
AbbreviationGlob. Environ. Change
ISSN (print)0959-3780
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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