How to format your references using the Biomedical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Velasquez-Manoff M. Gut microbiome: the peacekeepers. Nature 2015;518:S3-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Johnson GL, Lapadat R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases. Science 2002;298:1911–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
West GB, Brown JH, Enquist BJ. A general model for ontogenetic growth. Nature 2001;413:628–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Wang W, Du M, Gu D, Zhu L, Chu H, Tong N, et al. MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism is associated with colorectal cancer risk. Sci Rep 2014;4:4851.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Radcliff PB. Modern Spain. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Sahayaraj K. Artificial Rearing of Reduviid Predators for Pest Management. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Asatiani R. A Dynamic Conceptual Model for the Linguistic Structuring of Space: Georgian Preverbs. In: Bosch P, Gabelaia D, Lang J, editors. Logic, Language, and Computation: 7th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2007, Tbilisi, Georgia, October 1-5, 2007. Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 38–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Journal.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. Discovery Of Cosmic Web Feeding A Protogalaxy Could Reveal How Galaxies Form. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/space/mystery-how-galaxies-formed-possibly-solved-discovery-cosmic-web-feeding-protogalaxy/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Actions Taken or Needed To Curb Widespread Abuse of the Citizens Band Radio Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Guiltinan E. Characterizing well connectivity in fractured bedrock using periodic hydraulic tests. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Stewart JB. Cadillac’s Ad Gambit: Selling Luxury Cars by Promoting Unity. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Journal
AbbreviationBiomed. J.
ISSN (print)2319-4170
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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