How to format your references using the Biomedical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harden N. Cell biology. Of grainy heads and broken skins. Science 2005;308:364–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arndt M, Brand C. QUANTUM MECHANICS. Interference of atomic clocks. Science 2015;349:1168–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Steck DA, Oskay WH, Raizen MG. Observation of chaos-assisted tunneling between islands of stability. Science 2001;293:274–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang J, Gudiksen MS, Duan X, Cui Y, Lieber CM. Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires. Science 2001;293:1455–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kovalenko NP, Krasny YP, Krey U. Physics of Amorphous Metals. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Gentili G. The Median Nerve: Motor Conduction Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Muggleton SH, Lodhi H, Amini A, Sternberg MJE. Support Vector Inductive Logic Programming. In: Holmes DE, Jain LC, editors. Innovations in Machine Learning: Theory and Applications, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 113–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Journal.

Blog post
Andrews R. King Penguins Adversely Affected By Climate Extremes. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Community Colleges: New Federal Research Center May Enhance Current Understanding of Developmental Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne LG. The experience of caring for women with drug or alcohol problems in the general hospital. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: In Hindsight; Texas-Size Failure. New York Times 1992:111.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Journal
AbbreviationBiomed. J.
ISSN (print)2319-4170
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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