How to format your references using the Biomedical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anson L. Membrane protein biophysics. Nature 2009;459:343.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulet JFA, Hedwig B. A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production. Nature 2002;418:872–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seiffert ER, Simons EL, Attia Y. Fossil evidence for an ancient divergence of lorises and galagos. Nature 2003;422:421–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li S, Xue Q, Duh J-G, Du H, Xu J, Wan Y, et al. Driving ferromagnetic resonance frequency of FeCoB/PZN-PT multiferroic heterostructures to Ku-band via two-step climbing: composition gradient sputtering and magnetoelectric coupling. Sci Rep 2014;4:7393.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray DF, Malone SW. Macrofinancial Risk Analysis. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2008.
An edited book
Balandin S, Moltchanov D, Koucheryavy Y, editors. Next Generation Teletraffic and Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking: 8th International Conference, NEW2AN and 1st Russian Conference on Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2008 St. Petersburg, Russia, September 3-5, 2008. Proceedings. vol. 5174. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Briot S, Rosenzveig V, Martinet P. The Hidden Robot Concept: A Tool for Control Analysis and Robot Control-Based Design. In: Lenarčič J, Khatib O, editors. Advances in Robot Kinematics, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 31–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Free-flowing water discovered on the equator of Mars. IFLScience 2013. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Consolidation of American Forces Radio and Television Service--Washington and Los Angeles Broadcasting Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhong A. Product Development Considerations for a Nutrient Rich Bar Using Cricket (Acheta domesticus) Protein. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Steel E. As Content Makers Rise, Malone Eyes Consolidation. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Journal
AbbreviationBiomed. J.
ISSN (print)2319-4170
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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