How to format your references using the Water Conservation Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Conservation Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sekercioglu CH (2011) Ecology. Functional extinctions of bird pollinators cause plant declines. Science 331:1019–1020
A journal article with 2 authors
Fang J, McCutchan TF (2002) Thermoregulation in a parasite’s life cycle. Nature 418:742
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen R-P, Chew K-H, He S (2013) Dynamic control of collapse in a vortex Airy beam. Sci Rep 3:1406
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pearce G, Moura DS, Stratmann J, Ryan CA (2001) Production of multiple plant hormones from a single polyprotein precursor. Nature 411:817–820

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jawlik AA (2016) Statistics from A to Z: Confusing Concepts Clarified. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ismail MEH, Koelink E (2005) Theory and Applications of Special Functions: A Volume Dedicated to Mizan Rahman. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
HaCohen-Kerner Y, Kass A, Peretz A (2008) Abbreviation Disambiguation: Experiments with Various Variants of the One Sense per Discourse Hypothesis. In: Kapetanios E, Sugumaran V, Spiliopoulou M (eds) Natural Language and Information Systems: 13th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems, NLDB 2008 London, UK, June 24-27, 2008 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Conservation Science and Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Elon Musk Hints At Sending Humans Beyond Mars With “Interplanetary Transport System” Spacecraft. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Independent Auditor’s Report on Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2015 Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henry AG (2010) Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neandertals and modern humans. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Scheiber N (2016) Fight for $15 Widens Focus. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Conservation Science and Engineering
AbbreviationWater Conserv. Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)2366-3340
ISSN (online)2364-5687

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