How to format your references using the Water Conservation Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Conservation Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levinger NE (2002) Chemistry. Water in confinement. Science 298:1722–1723
A journal article with 2 authors
Osteryoung KW, Nunnari J (2003) The division of endosymbiotic organelles. Science 302:1698–1704
A journal article with 3 authors
Bai S, Xu Q, Qin Y (2013) Vibration driven vehicle inspired from grass spike. Sci Rep 3:1851
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sun H, Jami E, Harpaz S, Mizrahi I (2013) Involvement of dietary salt in shaping bacterial communities in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Sci Rep 3:1558

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams N (2013) Eclipse of Grace. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Pitilakis K, Franchin P, Khazai B, Wenzel H (2014) SYNER-G: Systemic Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Complex Urban, Utility, Lifeline Systems and Critical Facilities: Methodology and Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Haltinner K (2016) Gender Bending in the Classroom: Teaching Gender Inequity Without Reifying Gender Essentialism and Heteronormativity. In: Haltinner K, Pilgeram R (eds) Teaching Gender and Sex in Contemporary America. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–51

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Conservation Science and Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) This Time-Lapse Of Cell Division In A Tadpole Egg Is Apparently Real. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Administrative Systems: NASA Should Reassess Its AIM Program and Rescind Its IBM-Compatible Policy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prophete KS (2013) How race, gender, and Pell status affect the persistence and degree attainment rates of dual enrollment students. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A (2014) And Surrogacy Makes 3. New York Times E1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Conservation Science and Engineering
AbbreviationWater Conserv. Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)2366-3340
ISSN (online)2364-5687

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