How to format your references using the Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart, A.K.: Medicine. How thalidomide works against cancer. Science. 343, 256–257 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Solomon, T.H., Mezić, I.: Uniform resonant chaotic mixing in fluid flows. Nature. 425, 376–380 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, M.A., Brandt, J., Shadmehr, R.: Motor disorder in Huntington’s disease begins as a dysfunction in error feedback control. Nature. 403, 544–549 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ducatez, M.F., Olinger, C.M., Owoade, A.A., De Landtsheer, S., Ammerlaan, W., Niesters, H.G.M., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., Fouchier, R.A.M., Muller, C.P.: Avian flu: multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria. Nature. 442, 37 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu, Q.K.: Power Distribution Network Design For VLSI. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Eisner, C.: A Practical Introduction to PSL. Springer US, Boston, MA (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Lazzini, S., Anselmi, L., Schiavo, L.L., Falanga, A.M.: The Role of Information Systems to Support Performance Management in Public Administration: The Case of the Italian Regulatory Authority for the Energy Sector. In: Baglieri, D., Metallo, C., Rossignoli, C., and Pezzillo Iacono, M. (eds.) Information Systems, Management, Organization and Control: Smart Practices and Effects. pp. 47–64. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Folding Graphene Like Origami May Allow Us To Wear Sensors In Our Skin,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Earth Observing System: Funding Requirements for NASA’s EOSDIS. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ithier-Guzman, W.: Assessing the ability of soils and sediment to adsorb and retain cesium-137 in Puerto Rico, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J.: Exploring the Sea, No Sailors Needed, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stewart 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Solomon and Mezić 2003; Stewart 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Solomon and Mezić 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ducatez et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Services and Outcomes Research Methodology
AbbreviationHealth Serv. Outcomes Res. Methodol.
ISSN (print)1387-3741
ISSN (online)1572-9400
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles