How to format your references using the Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ransohoff, R.M.: Physiology. Good barriers make good neighbors. Science. 346, 36–37 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, L., Weidner, D.J.: Effect of phase transitions on compressional-wave velocities in the Earth’s mantle. Nature. 454, 984–986 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Rustagi, D., Engel, S., Kosfeld, M.: Conditional cooperation and costly monitoring explain success in forest commons management. Science. 330, 961–965 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Phillips, R., Ursell, T., Wiggins, P., Sens, P.: Emerging roles for lipids in shaping membrane-protein function. Nature. 459, 379–385 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiher, M., Wolf, A.: Relativistic Quantum Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany (2014)
An edited book
He, Q.: Absolute Clauses in English from the Systemic Functional Perspective: A Corpus-Based Study. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Lepik, Ü., Hein, H.: Stiff Equations. In: Hein, H. (ed.) Haar Wavelets: With Applications. pp. 45–57. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Vitamin D May Protect Against Cognitive Decline,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Exploration: Cost, Schedule, and Performance of NASA’s Magellan Mission to Venus. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, M.: Support groups for caregivers of older adults with end stage renal disease: A grant proposal, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W.: In Colombia, an Election May Turn on a Dirty War, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ransohoff 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Li and Weidner 2008; Ransohoff 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Weidner 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Phillips et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Services and Outcomes Research Methodology
AbbreviationHealth Serv. Outcomes Res. Methodol.
ISSN (print)1387-3741
ISSN (online)1572-9400
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles