How to format your references using the The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wand, A. J. 2015. Biophysics: Enzymes surf the heat wave. Nature. 517: 149–150.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bainer, R. and Weaver, V. 2013. Cell biology. Strength under tension. Science. 341: 965–966.
A journal article with 3 authors
Otto, A., White, J. D. and Simoneit, B. R. T. 2002. Natural product terpenoids in Eocene and Miocene conifer fossils. Science. 297: 1543–1545.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schlichting, H. E., Ofek, E. O., Wenz, M., Sari, R., Gal-Yam, A., Livio, M., Nelan, E. and Zucker, S. 2009. A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data. Nature. 462: 895–897.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society 2013. Recommendations on Excavations EAB, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
2015. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Nimmo, G. 2013. Technology Roadmapping on the Industry Level: Experiences from Canada. pp. 47–65. In: Technology Roadmapping for Strategy and Innovation: Charting the Route to Success, (Moehrle, Martin G., Isenmann, Ralf and Phaal, Robert eds.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science.

Blog post
Andrews, R. What’s The Most Powerful Natural Disaster That The World Has Ever Experienced?


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: FCC’s Performance Management Weaknesses Could Jeopardize Proposed Reforms of the Rural Health Care Program.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eakman, T. L. Education Level and Critical Thinking Skills Among Substance Use Counselors Nationwide: A Descriptive Comparative Study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Fury at the Sounds of South Africa’s World Cup.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [3, 5, 7, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
ISSN (print)0916-7250
ISSN (online)1347-7439

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