How to format your references using the The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frierson, D. M. W. 2012. Atmospheric science. Frictional dissipation--blame it on the rain. Science. 335: 925–926.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crespi, B. and Springer, S. 2003. Ecology. Social slime molds meet their match. Science. 299: 56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koga, K., Tanaka, H. and Zeng, X. C. 2000. First-order transition in confined water between high-density liquid and low-density amorphous phases. Nature. 408: 564–567.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Solstad, T., Boccara, C. N., Kropff, E., Moser, M.-B. and Moser, E. I. 2008. Representation of geometric borders in the entorhinal cortex. Science. 322: 1865–1868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli, D. 2007. IP Multicast with Applications to IPTV and Mobile DVB-H, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2014. Active and Passive Vibration Control of Structures, 1st ed., Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Efendiev, Y. and Hou, T. Y. 2008. Multiscale Computations for Flow and Transport in Heterogeneous Media. pp. 169–248. In: Quantum Transport: Modelling, Analysis and Asymptotics — Lectures given at the C.I.M.E. Summer School held in Cetraro, Italy September 11–16, 2006, (Arnold, Anton, Degond, Pierre, Hou, Thomas Yizhao, Abdallah, Naoufel Ben and Frosali, Giovanni eds.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. The Palaeolithic Diet And The Unprovable Links To Our Past.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Airline Competition: Higher Fares and Reduced Competition at Concentrated Airports.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jakubowski, J. K. Making character education a reality: An investigation of secondary teachers’ perspectives toward implementation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. Barbecue, Smoked and Sauced.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [3, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
ISSN (print)0916-7250
ISSN (online)1347-7439

Other styles