How to format your references using the The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodson, R. 2015. Small organ, big reach. Nature. 528: S118-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohlstein, B. and Spradling, A. 2006. The adult Drosophila posterior midgut is maintained by pluripotent stem cells. Nature. 439: 470–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilchrist, A., Resch, K. J. and White, A. G. 2007. Quantum information: source of triggered entangled photon pairs? Nature. 445: E4-5; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bottke, W. F., Nesvorný, D., Grimm, R. E., Morbidelli, A. and O’Brien, D. P. 2006. Iron meteorites as remnants of planetesimals formed in the terrestrial planet region. Nature. 439: 821–824.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair, T. H. 2016. Energy Production Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2014. Risk-Informed Management of European River Basins, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bakonyi, M. and Lopushanskaya, E. V. 2010. Moment Problems for Real Measures on the Unit Circle. pp. 49–60. In: Recent Advances in Operator Theory in Hilbert and Krein Spaces, (Behrndt, Jussi, Förster, Karl-Heinz and Trunk, Carsten eds.) Birkhäuser, Basel.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Coral Reefs Need Cleaning Too.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: Additional Federal Efforts Could Help Advance Digital Television Transition.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kang, H. Essays on Methodologies in Contingent Valuation and the Sustainable Management of Common Pool Resources.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. After Defeat, Islip Republicans Scramble to Find an Entry.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
ISSN (print)0916-7250
ISSN (online)1347-7439

Other styles