How to format your references using the Water Alternatives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Alternatives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Omichinski, J.G. 2007. Biochemistry. Toward methylmercury bioremediation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317(5835): 205–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Min, J.-H. and Pavletich, N.P. 2007. Recognition of DNA damage by the Rad4 nucleotide excision repair protein. Nature 449(7162): 570–575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, G.; Jalil, M.B.A. and Liang, G. 2014. Effect of band-alignment operation on carrier transport in Bi2Se3 topological insulator. Scientific reports 4: 6220.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Furuike, S.; Hossain, M.D.; Maki, Y.; Adachi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kohori, A.; Itoh, H.; Yoshida, M. and Kinosita, K., Jr. 2008. Axle-less F1-ATPase rotates in the correct direction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319(5865): 955–958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan, F. 2013. Cognitive Therapy for Addiction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd..
An edited book
Kim-Prieto, C. (Ed). 2014. Religion and Spirituality Across Cultures. Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology 9. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Laxmi, B.P. and Chilambuchelvan, A. 2012. Secured Two Phase Geographic Forwarding with GSS Algorithm. In Das, V.V. and Stephen, J. (Eds), Advances in Communication, Network, and Computing: Third International Conference, CNC 2012, Chennai, India, February 24-25, 2012, Revised Selected Papers , Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, pp. 25–30. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Alternatives.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. Element 117 Has Officially Been Named “Tennessine.” IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Automatic Data Processing: A Career Challenge. 124847. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Addington, L.M. 2012. Students’ Preferences for Information Sources during the Undergraduate College Search Process: The Influence of Technology. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. 2008. Students Help Track Black Squirrels. New York Times. 24 February 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Omichinski, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Min and Pavletich, 2007; Omichinski, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Min and Pavletich, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Furuike et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Alternatives
ISSN (online)1965-0175

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