How to format your references using the Water Alternatives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Alternatives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyle, P. 2013. Social science. A U.K. view on the U.S. attack on social sciences. Science (New York, N.Y.) 341(6147): 719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, L. and Stegman, D.R. 2012. Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab. Nature 482(7385): 386–389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Friedberg, E.C.; Wagner, R. and Radman, M. 2002. Specialized DNA polymerases, cellular survival, and the genesis of mutations. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5573): 1627–1630.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Toga, T.; Kuraoka, I.; Watanabe, S.; Nakano, E.; Takeuchi, S.; Nishigori, C.; Sugasawa, K. and Iwai, S. 2014. Fluorescence detection of cellular nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. Scientific reports 4: 5578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mowlaee, P.; Kulmer, J.; Stahl, J. and Mayer, F. 2017. Single Channel Phase-Aware Signal Processing in Speech Communication: Theory and Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang, J.; He, J.-H. and Fu, Y. (Eds). 2005. Computational and Information Science: First International Symposium, CIS 2004, Shanghai, China, December 16-18, 2004. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3314. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bahadur, R. and Samuels, W.B. 2011. Drinking Water Critical Infrastructure and Its Protection. In Clark, R.M.; Hakim, S. and Ostfeld, A. (Eds), Handbook of Water and Wastewater Systems Protection, pp. 65–85. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Alternatives.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2017. The Deepwater Horizon Disaster Released A Heart-Damaging Pollutant. IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Transportation and Telecommunications Reports and Testimony: May 1992 - April 1993. RCED-93-187. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell, F.M. 2012. A study of the effects of nanoparticle modification on the thermal, mechanical and hygrothermal performance of carbon/vinyl ester composites. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fiske, I.H. 1907. WILLIAM MORRIS. New York Times. 23 March 1907.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyle, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Liu and Stegman, 2012; Boyle, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Stegman, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Toga et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Alternatives
ISSN (online)1965-0175

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