How to format your references using the Water Alternatives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Alternatives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, P.A. 2002. Paleoclimate. Trans-Atlantic climate connections. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5565): 67–68.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baker, A.W. and Forest, K.T. 2014. Structural biology: Action at a distance in a light receptor. Nature 509(7499): 174–175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goebel, T.; Waters, M.R. and Dikova, M. 2003. The archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301(5632): 501–505.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Melnick, G.J.; Neufeld, D.A.; Saavik Ford, K.E.; Hollenbach, D.J. and Ashby, M.L. 2001. Discovery of water vapour around IRC+10216 as evidence for comets orbiting another star. Nature 412(6843): 160–163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stein, R.L. 2011. Kinetics of Enzyme Action. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
An edited book
Ishaaya, I.; Palli, S.R. and Horowitz, A.R. (Eds). 2013. Advanced Technologies for Managing Insect Pests. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hauswirth, M.; Hitzler, P. and Mohania, M. 2011. ODBASE 2011 PC Co-chairs’ Message. In Meersman, R.; Dillon, T. and Herrero, P. (Eds), On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2011 Workshops: Confederated International Workshops and Posters: EI2N+NSF ICE, ICSP+INBAST, ISDE, ORM, OTMA, SWWS+MONET+SeDeS, and VADER 2011, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, October 17-21, 2011. Proceedings , Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 26–26. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Alternatives.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2017. A New Sporting Competition – Which Balls Are Most Affected By The Magnus Effect? IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. ADP Management: Status of the Army’s Logistics and Technical Information Initiatives. IMTEC-89-10. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Byrne, S.M. 2008. Metabolic and pathological role of retinyl esters: The role of lecithin:retinol acyl transferase, (LRAT). Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. 2016. Size Matters: Secrets of the Orchid Mantis. New York Times. 5 December 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2002; Baker and Forest, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baker and Forest, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Melnick et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Alternatives
ISSN (online)1965-0175

Other styles