How to format your references using the Water Alternatives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Alternatives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. 2001. All systems go for neuroscience. Nature 414(6860): 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fang, J. and McCutchan, T.F. 2002. Thermoregulation in a parasite’s life cycle. Nature 418(6899): 742.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oye, K.A.; Lawson, J.C.H. and Bubela, T. 2015. Drugs: Regulate “home-brew” opiates. Nature 521(7552): 281–283.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nelson, C.M.; Vanduijn, M.M.; Inman, J.L.; Fletcher, D.A. and Bissell, M.J. 2006. Tissue geometry determines sites of mammary branching morphogenesis in organotypic cultures. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314(5797): 298–300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brower, M.C. 2012. Wind Resource Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
An edited book
Detyniecki, M.; García-Serrano, A.; Nürnberger, A. and Stober, S. (Eds). 2013. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval. Large-Scale Multimedia Retrieval and Evaluation: 9th International Workshop, AMR 2011, Barcelona, Spain, July 18-19, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7836. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdullah, A. and Hussain, A. 2007. Using Biclustering for Automatic Attribute Selection to Enhance Global Visualization. In Lévy, P.P.; Grand, B.L.; Poulet, F.; Soto, M.; Darago, L.; Toubiana, L. and Vibert, J.-F. (Eds), Pixelization Paradigm: First Visual Information Expert Workshop, VIEW 2006, Paris, France, April 24-25, 2006, Revised Selected Papers , Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 35–47. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Alternatives.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016. Bigger Wine Glasses Makes People Drink Significantly More. IFLScience. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. National Public Radio. 123385. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manzano, D. 2010. The benefits of fall intervention programs for older adults: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coll, S. 2017. Size Matters. New York Times. 10 March 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2001; Fang and McCutchan, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fang and McCutchan, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nelson et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Alternatives
ISSN (online)1965-0175

Other styles