How to format your references using the Annals of Clinical Biochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rowan-Robinson M. Astronomy. Probing the cold universe. Science. 2009 Jul 31;325(5940):546–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown LS, Lankford WF. Sustainability: Clean cooking empowers women. Nature. 2015 May 21;521(7552):284–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mihalcescu I, Hsing W, Leibler S. Resilient circadian oscillator revealed in individual cyanobacteria. Nature. 2004 Jul 1;430(6995):81–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Giron D, Dunn DW, Hardy ICW, Strand MR. Aggression by polyembryonic wasp soldiers correlates with kinship but not resource competition. Nature. 2004 Aug 5;430(7000):676–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson DA. Interpreting Land Records. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Saito T, Stone JH, Nakashima H, Saeki T, Kawano M, editors. IgG4-Related Kidney Disease. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016. XI, 311 p. 100 illus., 54 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Scheerens J. Relevance of the Findings for Educational Policy and Future Research. In: Scheerens J, editor. Effectiveness of Time Investments in Education: Insights from a review and meta-analysis. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 143–57. (SpringerBriefs in Education).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Clinical Biochemistry.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Shocked To Discover Eukaryote With NO Mitochondria. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. House of Representatives’ Amendment to the Energy Research and Development Administration’s Authorization Bill for Fiscal Year 1978. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Sep. Report No.: EMD-77-73.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bearden BA. Followership as perceived by leaders in a multidisciplinary healthcare organization [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Slugger’s Penalty Includes a Walk Through History. New York Times. 2012 Nov 8;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Clinical Biochemistry
AbbreviationAnn. Clin. Biochem.
ISSN (print)0004-5632
ISSN (online)1758-1001
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

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