How to format your references using the Annals of Clinical Biochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Climate change expert stirs new controversy. Nature. 2000 Sep 7;407(6800):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Slessareva JE, Dohlman HG. G protein signaling in yeast: new components, new connections, new compartments. Science. 2006 Dec 1;314(5804):1412–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsushita T, Mochizuki N, Nagatani A. Dimers of the N-terminal domain of phytochrome B are functional in the nucleus. Nature. 2003 Jul 31;424(6948):571–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rosi NL, Eckert J, Eddaoudi M, Vodak DT, Kim J, O’Keeffe M, et al. Hydrogen storage in microporous metal-organic frameworks. Science. 2003 May 16;300(5622):1127–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nations S. The Complete Book of Option Spreads and Combinations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Peterson G, Shenoi S, editors. Advances in Digital Forensics VIII: 8th IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Pretoria, South Africa, January 3-5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XVIII, 334 p. (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology; vol. 383).
A chapter in an edited book
Budd AF, Klaus JS. Early Evolution of the Montastraea “annularis” Species Complex (Anthozoa: Scleractinia): Evidence from the Mio-Pliocene of the Dominican Republic. In: Nehm RH, Budd AF, editors. Evolutionary Stasis and Change in the Dominican Republic Neogene. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 85–123. (Aims and Scope Topics in Geobiology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Clinical Biochemistry.

Blog post
Andrew E. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. To Fight Zika, Let’s Genetically Modify Mosquitoes – The Old-Fashioned Way. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Transportation: Federal Railroad Administration’s New Approach to Railroad Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Jul. Report No.: RCED-97-142.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith GS. The relationship between legislative implementations and educator readiness in inclusive educational environments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Garland SB. Vulnerable Older Adults, Abusive Guardians. New York Times. 2017 Jul 28;BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Clinical Biochemistry
AbbreviationAnn. Clin. Biochem.
ISSN (print)0004-5632
ISSN (online)1758-1001
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

Other styles