How to format your references using the Annals of Clinical Biochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M. Medical marijuana: Showdown at the cannabis corral. Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):S15-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mehl G, Labrique A. Prioritizing integrated mHealth strategies for universal health coverage. Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1284–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nir E, Kleinermanns K, de Vries MS. Pairing of isolated nucleic-acid bases in the absence of the DNA backbone. Nature. 2000;408(6815):949–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schmidt AR, Ragazzi E, Coppellotti O, Roghi G. A microworld in Triassic amber. Nature. 2006 Dec 14;444(7121):835.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ferrari ML, Damo UM, Turan A, Sánchez D. Hybrid Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Fischer-Wolfarth J, Meyer G, editors. Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2014: Smart Systems for Safe, Clean and Automated Vehicles. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XX, 301 p. 217 illus., 175 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Mobility).
A chapter in an edited book
Lorenzini A, Maier AB. Influence of Donor Age and Species Longevity on Replicative Cellular Senescence. In: Rattan SIS, Hayflick L, editors. Cellular Ageing and Replicative Senescence. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 49–70. (Healthy Ageing and Longevity).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Clinical Biochemistry.

Blog post
Andrew E. 20 Awesome Science Experiments You Can Do Right Now At Home [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need To Remove More Low-Cost, Low-Usage Items From Inventories. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Mar. Report No.: B-133118.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clarke PN. Program evaluation: A study to evaluate the effectiveness of an alternative education program in a rural county of a mid-Atlantic U.S. state [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Nunley’s Carousel Comes Full Circle. New York Times. 2006 Jan 8;14LI3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Clinical Biochemistry
AbbreviationAnn. Clin. Biochem.
ISSN (print)0004-5632
ISSN (online)1758-1001
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

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