How to format your references using the The American Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Vosshall LB. Into the mind of a fly. Nature. 2007;450(7167):193-197.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Moscou MJ, Bogdanove AJ. A simple cipher governs DNA recognition by TAL effectors. Science. 2009;326(5959):1501.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bongard J, Zykov V, Lipson H. Resilient machines through continuous self-modeling. Science. 2006;314(5802):1118-1121.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Pachoud A, Jaiswal M, Wang Y, et al. Multiple virtual tunneling of Dirac fermions in granular graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gupta SK. Modern Hydrology and Sustainable Water Development. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Rendell AP, Chapman BM, Müller MS, eds. OpenMP in the Era of Low Power Devices and Accelerators: 9th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2013, Canberra, ACT, Australia, September 16-18, 2013. Proceedings. Vol 8122. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Otto S, Kwon T-G, Assaf AT. Definition, Clinical Features and Staging of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. In: Otto S, ed. Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: Bisphosphonates, Denosumab, and New Agents. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015:43-54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Molecules of noble gases have been discovered in space. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/molecules-noble-gases-have-been-discovered-space/. Published December 14, 2013. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Trust and Other Earmarked Funds: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Masuyama G. The Bird Is A Word. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L. Moving From Team Sport to Lifelong Fitness. New York Times. January 11, 2009:LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationAm. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0002-9610
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Surgery

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