How to format your references using the The American Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bobrow M. Regulate research at the animal-human interface. Nature. 2011;475(7357):448.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wu L, Hickson ID. The Bloom’s syndrome helicase suppresses crossing over during homologous recombination. Nature. 2003;426(6968):870-874.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lehmann E, Brueckner F, Cramer P. Molecular basis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase II activity. Nature. 2007;450(7168):445-449.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Adams RW, Aguilar JA, Atkinson KD, et al. Reversible interactions with para-hydrogen enhance NMR sensitivity by polarization transfer. Science. 2009;323(5922):1708-1711.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Freeman RL. Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
1.
Gentili G. The Median Nerve: Sensory Conduction Studies. (Di Napoli M, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Devonshire-Ellis C, Scott A, Woollard S. China’s Business Taxes. In: Devonshire-Ellis C, Scott A, Woollard S, eds. Setting Up Joint Ventures in China. Springer; 2011:87-105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Evans K. Sorry Zookeepers, Chimps Don’t Care If You Play Them Music. IFLScience. Published March 30, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/sorry-zookeepers-chimps-dont-care-if-you-play-them-music/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Transit Asset Management: Additional Research on Capital Investment Effects Could Help Transit Agencies Optimize Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Clemons BL. A correlational study of the ventures for excellence interview-rating system and first year teacher evaluations. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Silver-Greenberg J, Protess B. Gun Control Groups Find a Wealthy Ally in Big Law. New York Times. December 7, 2016:BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationAm. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0002-9610
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Surgery

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