How to format your references using the The American Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toms DJ. Quantum gravitational contributions to quantum electrodynamics. Nature. 2010;468(7320):56-59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawai N, Matsuzawa T. Numerical memory span in a chimpanzee. Nature. 2000;403(6765):39-40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Capozza R, Barel I, Urbakh M. Probing and tuning frictional aging at the nanoscale. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1896.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li X, Zhang Q, Chen X, Gu M. Giant refractive-index modulation by two-photon reduction of fluorescent graphene oxides for multimode optical recording. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale W. Global Food Security and Supply. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Savage MK, Rhoades DA, Smith EGC, Gerstenberger MC, Vere-Jones D, eds. Seismogenesis and Earthquake Forecasting: The Frank Evison Volume II. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodríguez A, Selga J, Martín F, Boria VE. Practical Application of Space Mapping Techniques to the Synthesis of CSRR-Based Artificial Transmission Lines. In: Koziel S, Leifsson L, eds. Surrogate-Based Modeling and Optimization: Applications in Engineering. Springer; 2013:81-97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Flat Semiconductors Possible With New Material. IFLScience. Published April 30, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. CH-53E Helicopter. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell VM. A phenomenological study factors African American female college students face participating in engineering STEM majors. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Books of Wonder Coming to West Side. New York Times. June 8, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationAm. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0002-9610
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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