How to format your references using the Diabetes Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hummer G. Biochemistry. Potassium ions line up. Science. 2014;346:303.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hawkins PT, Stephens LR. PI3Kgamma is a key regulator of inflammatory responses and cardiovascular homeostasis. Science. 2007;318:64–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Srinivasan V, Pierik AJ, Lill R. Crystal structures of nucleotide-free and glutathione-bound mitochondrial ABC transporter Atm1. Science. 2014;343:1137–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Flanagan JF, Mi L-Z, Chruszcz M, Cymborowski M, Clines KL, Kim Y, et al. Double chromodomains cooperate to recognize the methylated histone H3 tail. Nature. 2005;438:1181–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lagraña F. E-mail and Behavioral Changes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Eaton SR, Eaton GR, Berliner LJ, editors. Biomedical EPR, Part B: Methodology, Instrumentation, and Dynamics. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. de Andrade MJ, de Oliveira FF, Faraco B, Bonadiman R, Sousa VC. Optoeletronic and Ferroeletric Applications. In: Bergmann CP, Andrade MJ de, editors. Nanostructured Materials for Engineering Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Biggest Scientific Hoaxes of 2014 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Quality Assurance: The Fastener Quality Act’s Small-Lot Exemption. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Jun. Report No.: GAO-01-719.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Coleman MJ. Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Slippers, Pudding and a Martini Glass For Auden, in This Age of Anxiety. New York Times. 2001 Oct 21;148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Therapy
AbbreviationDiabetes Ther.
ISSN (print)1869-6953
ISSN (online)1869-6961
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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