How to format your references using the Diabetes Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Miesenböck G. The optogenetic catechism. Science. 2009;326:395–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pera M, Trounson A. Cloning debate: Stem-cell researchers must stay engaged. Nature. 2013;498:159–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chen Y-Z, Huang Z-G, Lai Y-C. Controlling extreme events on complex networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6121.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xia Y, Wang Y, Fang HHP, Jin T, Zhong H, Zhang T. Thermophilic microbial cellulose decomposition and methanogenesis pathways recharacterized by metatranscriptomic and metagenomic analysis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Anderson JB. Digital Transmission Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Blanchard P. Random Walks and Diffusions on Graphs and Databases: An Introduction. Volchenkov D, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mulkidjanian AY. Abiotic Photosynthesis. In: Gargaud M, Irvine WM, Amils R, Cleaves HJ (jim), Pinti DL, Quintanilla JC, et al., editors. Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 26–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Therapy.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Dawn Spacecraft Denied Exciting Mission To Explore A New Body In The Asteroid Belt [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Increased Federal Telecommunications System Use by Strengthened Control Over Commercial Toll Calls Could Reduce Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Oct. Report No.: MASAD-82-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bernal E. Ethnographic research of emergent cultural themes from technology-based informal education in a museum [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Two Students Honored for Scientific Projects. New York Times. 2005 Dec 11;14LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Therapy
AbbreviationDiabetes Ther.
ISSN (print)1869-6953
ISSN (online)1869-6961
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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