How to format your references using the Waste Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waste Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bull, J.J., 2015. Evolution: Reptile sex determination goes wild. Nature 523, 43–44.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rignot, E., Thomas, R.H., 2002. Mass balance of polar ice sheets. Science 297, 1502–1506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ganesh, G., Osu, R., Naito, E., 2013. Feeling the force: returning haptic signals influence effort inference during motor coordination. Sci. Rep. 3, 2648.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sebastiani, P., Solovieff, N., Puca, A., Hartley, S.W., Melista, E., Andersen, S., Dworkis, D.A., Wilk, J.B., Myers, R.H., Steinberg, M.H., Montano, M., Baldwin, C.T., Perls, T.T., 2011. Retraction. Science 333, 404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jenkinson, J., Hyde, T., Ahmad, S., 2008. Building Blocks for Learning: Occupational Therapy Approaches. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
An edited book
Sreejesh, S., 2014. Business Research Methods: An Applied Orientation. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, C., Maglinte, D., 2015. The Role of CTE/Barium Enteroclysis in Crohn’s Disease, in: Rajesh, A., Sinha, R. (Eds.), Crohn’s Disease: Current Concepts. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waste Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. How To Feed a Two-Headed Snake [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Corps of Engineers: Extent and Status of Expedited Permit Processing for Public-Utility Companies, Natural Gas Companies, and Railroad Carriers (No. GAO-17-678R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada Marroquin, E.M., 2013. Using support groups to help kinship caregivers transition youth to safe and productive community living: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Macfarlane, I., 1905. “AN” AND “H.”; II. New York Times SATURDAY REVIEW OF BOOKSBR535.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bull, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bull, 2015; Rignot and Thomas, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rignot and Thomas, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Sebastiani et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleWaste Management
AbbreviationWaste Manag.
ISSN (print)0956-053X
ScopeWaste Management and Disposal

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