How to format your references using the Waste Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waste Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frenkel, D., 2002. Colloidal systems. Playing tricks with designer “atoms.” Science 296, 65–66.
A journal article with 2 authors
Massol, F., Crochet, P.-A., 2008. Do animal personalities emerge? Nature 451, E8-9; discussion E9-10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nestle, F.O., Speidel, H., Speidel, M.O., 2002. Metallurgy: high nickel release from 1- and 2-euro coins. Nature 419, 132.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mazel, C.H., Cronin, T.W., Caldwell, R.L., Marshall, N.J., 2004. Fluorescent enhancement of signaling in a mantis shrimp. Science 303, 51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Filla, J.J., Brown, H.E., 2013. Prospect Research for Fundraisers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Yogesan, K., Goldschmidt, L., Cuadros, J. (Eds.), 2012. Digital Teleretinal Screening: Teleophthalmology in Practice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Taylor, L.D., 2010. Stability of U.S. Consumption Expenditure Patterns: 1996–1999, in: Houthakker, H.S. (Ed.), Consumer Demand in the United States: Prices, Income, and Consumption Behavior. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 89–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waste Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Three Things We Have To Crack Before We Can Find Any Cures For Alzheimer’s [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Reduction in Demonstration Project Funding (No. RCED-96-172R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piekielek, J.A., 2009. Public wildlands at the U.S.-Mexico border: Where conservation, migration, and border enforcement collide (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Soble, J., 2017. Bankruptcy Of Takata May Ripple For Years. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Frenkel, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Frenkel, 2002; Massol and Crochet, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Massol and Crochet, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Mazel et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleWaste Management
AbbreviationWaste Manag.
ISSN (print)0956-053X
ScopeWaste Management and Disposal

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