How to format your references using the Waste Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waste Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt, S., 2013. Mood disorders: the dark night. Nature 497, S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kroymann, J., Mitchell-Olds, T., 2005. Epistasis and balanced polymorphism influencing complex trait variation. Nature 435, 95–98.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, J., Wang, B., Qiu, H., 2014. Coalescence and breakup of oppositely charged droplets. Sci. Rep. 4, 7123.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Isshiki, M., Irifune, T., Hirose, K., Ono, S., Ohishi, Y., Watanuki, T., Nishibori, E., Takata, M., Sakata, M., 2004. Stability of magnesite and its high-pressure form in the lowermost mantle. Nature 427, 60–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrow, E., Boaz, A., Brearley, S., Ross, F., 2011. Handbook of Service User Involvement in Nursing and Healthcare Research. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Mark, D., 2011. Beginning iPhone 4 Development: Exploring the iOS SDK. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Liang, B., Chen, C., Guan, Y.-H., Huang, X.-Y., 2015. Estimating the Missing Traffic Speeds via Continuous Conditional Random Fields, in: Cai, R., Chen, K., Hong, L., Yang, X., Zhang, R., Zou, L. (Eds.), Web Technologies and Applications: APWeb 2015 Workshops, BSD, WDMA, and BDAT, Guangzhou, China, September 18, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waste Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Habit Could Explain Poor Eating Decisions Made By Anorexics [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. FTS 2000: An Overview of the Federal Government’s New Telecommunications System (No. IMTEC-90-17FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bavkar, I.N., 2017. In-Node Vehicle Classification and Identification (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. Dubious Defense for Voting Against Storm Relief in 2013. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (DeWeerdt, 2013; Kroymann and Mitchell-Olds, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kroymann and Mitchell-Olds, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Isshiki et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleWaste Management
AbbreviationWaste Manag.
ISSN (print)0956-053X
ScopeWaste Management and Disposal

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