How to format your references using the Waste Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waste Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Larson, R.G., 2007. Biophysics. Going with the flow. Science 318, 57–58.
A journal article with 2 authors
Volz, J., Rauschenbeutel, A., 2013. Applied physics. Triggering an optical transistor with one photon. Science 341, 725–726.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murakami, K.S., Masuda, S., Darst, S.A., 2002. Structural basis of transcription initiation: RNA polymerase holoenzyme at 4 A resolution. Science 296, 1280–1284.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, D.M., Kiener, H.P., Agarwal, S.K., Noss, E.H., Watts, G.F.M., Chisaka, O., Takeichi, M., Brenner, M.B., 2007. Cadherin-11 in synovial lining formation and pathology in arthritis. Science 315, 1006–1010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBain, G.D., 2012. Theory of Lift. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mateo, C.R., Gómez, J., Villalaín, J., González-Ros, J.M. (Eds.), 2006. Protein-Lipid Interactions: New Approaches and Emerging Concepts, Springer Series in Biophysics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Manmana, S.R., Rodriguez, K., Muramatsu, A., 2008. Simulations of Strongly Correlated Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium, in: Nagel, W.E., Kröner, D., Resch, M. (Eds.), High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering `07: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2007. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 71–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waste Management.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. This Is What An Ancient Egyptian Woman Looked LIke [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Supercomputers (No. NSIAD-97-54R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darnell, C., 2017. Sharecropping in Higher Education: Case Study of the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University - Florida State University Joint College of Engineering (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. John Leguizamo in Nutty Professor Mode. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Larson, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Larson, 2007; Volz and Rauschenbeutel, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Volz and Rauschenbeutel, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleWaste Management
AbbreviationWaste Manag.
ISSN (print)0956-053X
ScopeWaste Management and Disposal

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