How to format your references using the Large-scale Assessments in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Large-scale Assessments in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone, A. J. (2007). Chemistry. Water from first principles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5816), 1228–1229.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teagle, D., & Ildefonse, B. (2011). Journey to the mantle of the Earth. Nature, 471(7339), 437–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schroder, K., Zhou, R., & Tschopp, J. (2010). The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger? Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5963), 296–300.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mao, L., Begum, D., Chuang, H. W., Budiman, M. A., Szymkowiak, E. J., Irish, E. E., & Wing, R. A. (2000). JOINTLESS is a MADS-box gene controlling tomato flower abscission zone development. Nature, 406(6798), 910–913.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharon, M., & Sharon, M. (2015). Graphene. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Li, Q. (Ed.). (2014). Nanoscience with Liquid Crystals: From Self-Organized Nanostructures to Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Olivetti, L., Mazza, G. C., & Mombelloni, S. (2009). Female Reproductive System: Normal Gross and Microscopic Anatomy. In L. Grazioli & L. Olivetti (Eds.), Imaging of Urogenital Diseases: A Color Atlas (pp. 65–72). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Large-scale Assessments in Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, August 11). This Incredible Footage Shows The Central Nervous System Of A Fly Larva In Action. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Research and Development and the Economy (No. 094660). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cai, S. (2008). 3D Numerical Modeling of Dry/Wet Contact Mechanics for Rough, Multilayered Elastic-Plastic Solid Surfaces and Effects of Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity During Separation with Applications (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, April 29). Battered Mets Survive the Nationals. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stone 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Stone 2007; Teagle and Ildefonse 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teagle and Ildefonse 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Mao et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLarge-scale Assessments in Education
AbbreviationLarge Scale Assess. Educ.
ISSN (online)2196-0739

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