How to format your references using the Large-scale Assessments in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Large-scale Assessments in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff, D. (2000). PHILANTHROPY: Moore Foundation Targets Science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5496), 1481b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fuller, M. T., & Spradling, A. C. (2007). Male and female Drosophila germline stem cells: two versions of immortality. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5823), 402–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Forde, S. E., Thompson, J. N., & Bohannan, B. J. M. (2004). Adaptation varies through space and time in a coevolving host-parasitoid interaction. Nature, 431(7010), 841–844.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Watson, T. F., Philips, S. G. J., Kawakami, E., Ward, D. R., Scarlino, P., Veldhorst, M., et al. (2018). A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon. Nature, 555(7698), 633–637.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matlock, M. D., & Morgan, R. A. (2011). Ecological Engineering Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lindner, W., Mesiti, M., Türker, C., Tzitzikas, Y., & Vakali, A. I. (Eds.). (2005). Current Trends in Database Technology - EDBT 2004 Workshops: EDBT 2004 Workshops PhD, DataX, PIM, P2P&DB, and ClustWeb, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, March 14-18, 2004. Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 3268). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gallo, C. A., Carballido, J. A., & Ponzoni, I. (2009). Microarray Biclustering: A Novel Memetic Approach Based on the PISA Platform. In C. Pizzuti, M. D. Ritchie, & M. Giacobini (Eds.), Evolutionary Computation, Machine Learning and Data Mining in Bioinformatics: 7th European Conference, EvoBIO 2009 Tübingen, Germany, April 15-17, 2009 Proceedings (pp. 44–55). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Large-scale Assessments in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 30). Scientists Successfully Chop Out Mitochondrial DNA Mutations In Mouse Embryos. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Telecommunications: GSA Has Made Progress in Planning Governmentwide Program but Challenges Remain (No. GAO-04-1085T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCourt, S. B. (2008). A phenomenological study of anticipated housing, healthcare, and biopsychosocial needs of aging female baby boomers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, June 15). Spotify Is Growing. So Are Its Losses. New York Times, p. B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Fuller and Spradling 2007; Malakoff 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fuller and Spradling 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Watson et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleLarge-scale Assessments in Education
AbbreviationLarge Scale Assess. Educ.
ISSN (online)2196-0739

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