How to format your references using the Large-scale Assessments in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Large-scale Assessments in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padian, K. (2001). Owen’s Parthian shot. Nature, 412(6843), 123–124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackwell, S., & Rubie, D. (2000). GEOPHYSICS: Earth Under Strain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5496), 1514–1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bertotti, B., Iess, L., & Tortora, P. (2003). A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft. Nature, 425(6956), 374–376.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Georgiou, G., Tyagi, H. K., Mulder, P., Bauhuis, G. J., Schermer, J. J., & Rivas, J. G. (2014). Photo-generated THz antennas. Scientific reports, 4, 3584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voit, B., Haag, R., Appelhans, D., & Welzel, P. B. (2016). Bio- and Multifunctional Polymer Architectures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kuro-o, M. (Ed.). (2012). Endocrine FGFs and Klothos (Vol. 728). New York, NY: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, L., Hu, J., He, M., & Chen, H. (2015). Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on K-Means Clustering for Droplet Property Optimization. In H. Liu, N. Kubota, X. Zhu, R. Dillmann, & D. Zhou (Eds.), Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 8th International Conference, ICIRA 2015, Portsmouth, UK, August 24-27, 2015, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 34–44). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Large-scale Assessments in Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, June 13). Scientists Create A Supernova Explosion In The Lab. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Federal Aviation Administration: Key Issues in Ensuring the Efficient Development and Safe Operation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (No. GAO-07-636T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A. (2015). Instructional Practices in Physical Education Programs for Students with Disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (1999, November 21). Cadets Can’t Catch Cougars. New York Times, p. 811.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Padian 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Mackwell and Rubie 2000; Padian 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mackwell and Rubie 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Georgiou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLarge-scale Assessments in Education
AbbreviationLarge Scale Assess. Educ.
ISSN (online)2196-0739

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