How to format your references using the Large-scale Assessments in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Large-scale Assessments in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon, J. (2004). Roger Payne profile. A toxic odyssey. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1584–1586.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hanrieder, J., & Ewing, A. G. (2014). Spatial elucidation of spinal cord lipid- and metabolite- regulations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Scientific reports, 4, 5266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pertea, M., Salzberg, S. L., & Gardner, M. J. (2000). Finding genes in Plasmodium falciparum. Nature, 404(6773), 34; discussion 34-5.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Scharmer, G. B., Gudiksen, B. V., Kiselman, D., Löfdahl, M. G., & van der Voort, L. H. M. R. (2002). Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments. Nature, 420(6912), 151–153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jay, S. A. (2006). High Voltage Electricity Installations. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ginès, P., Kamath, P. S., & Arroyo, V. (Eds.). (2011). Chronic Liver Failure: Mechanisms and Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Burnie, J. P., & Matthews, R. C. (2006). HSP90: The Unsung Villain of Sepsis? In J.-L. Vincent (Ed.), Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (pp. 35–44). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Large-scale Assessments in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 22). Ask A Physicist To Speak At Your Funeral. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Information Security: Many NASA Missions-Critical Systems Face Serious Risks (No. AIMD-99-47). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blumenfeld, D. B. (2015). Policy Making and the U.S. Response to Global HIV/AIDS (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, August 19). Neighbors Say an S.R.O. Is O.K., Just Make It Better. New York Times, p. 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohannon 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bohannon 2004; Hanrieder and Ewing 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hanrieder and Ewing 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Scharmer et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleLarge-scale Assessments in Education
AbbreviationLarge Scale Assess. Educ.
ISSN (online)2196-0739

Other styles