How to format your references using the Large-scale Assessments in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Large-scale Assessments in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich, E. S. (2011). Online reputations: Best face forward. Nature, 473(7346), 138–139.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kottemann, M. C., & Smogorzewska, A. (2013). Fanconi anaemia and the repair of Watson and Crick DNA crosslinks. Nature, 493(7432), 356–363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suthram, S., Sittler, T., & Ideker, T. (2005). The Plasmodium protein network diverges from those of other eukaryotes. Nature, 438(7064), 108–112.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rambaut, A., Robertson, D. L., Pybus, O. G., Peeters, M., & Holmes, E. C. (2001). Human immunodeficiency virus. Phylogeny and the origin of HIV-1. Nature, 410(6832), 1047–1048.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, S. A. (2011). Food and Package Engineering. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hakeem, K. R., Rehman, R. U., & Tahir, I. (Eds.). (2014). Plant signaling: Understanding the molecular crosstalk. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Simsek, M., & Sengor, N. S. (2013). The Efficiency of Difference Mapping in Space Mapping-Based Optimization. In S. Koziel & L. Leifsson (Eds.), Surrogate-Based Modeling and Optimization: Applications in Engineering (pp. 99–120). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Large-scale Assessments in Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 21). How Well Did Back To The Future Predict Our Lives In 2015? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to Focus Continued Attention on Implementing Reform Law (No. GAO-16-672T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu, C. (2013). Regulatory functions of the actin cytoskeleton in B cell receptor signaling (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., & Smith, M. (2017, July 20). Police Shooting Rattles Somalis in Minneapolis. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reich 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kottemann and Smogorzewska 2013; Reich 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kottemann and Smogorzewska 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rambaut et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLarge-scale Assessments in Education
AbbreviationLarge Scale Assess. Educ.
ISSN (online)2196-0739

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