How to format your references using the Large-scale Assessments in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Large-scale Assessments in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nibbering, E. T. J. (2014). Imaging techniques. Low-energy electron diffraction at ultrafast speeds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6193), 137–138.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rettig, J., & Neher, E. (2002). Emerging roles of presynaptic proteins in Ca++-triggered exocytosis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5594), 781–785.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaczmarczyk, A., Vorholt, J. A., & Francez-Charlot, A. (2014). Synthetic vanillate-regulated promoter for graded gene expression in Sphingomonas. Scientific reports, 4, 6453.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jokat, W., Ritzmann, O., Schmidt-Aursch, M. C., Drachev, S., Gauger, S., & Snow, J. (2003). Geophysical evidence for reduced melt production on the Arctic ultraslow Gakkel mid-ocean ridge. Nature, 423(6943), 962–965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisher, H. G., Forrest, H. S., Grossel, S. S., Huff, J. E., Muller, A. R., Noronha, J. A., et al. (1993). Emergency Relief System Design Using DIERS Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Capone, A., Lo Piparo, F., & Carapezza, M. (Eds.). (2013). Perspectives on Linguistic Pragmatics (Vol. 2). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gmitter, F. G., Soneji, J. R., & Rao, M. N. (2009). Citrus Breeding. In P. M. Priyadarshan & S. M. Jain (Eds.), Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Temperate Species (pp. 105–134). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Large-scale Assessments in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 12). What Happens When You Mix Molten Lead And Coca-Cola? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). The Army’s Multiple Launch Rocket System Is Progressing Well and Merits Continued Support (No. MASAD-82-13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
He, W. (2017). A Comprehensive Analysis of Fracture Initiation and Propagation in Sandstones based on Micro-Level Observation and Digital Imaging Correlation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K. (2017, September 18). Refusing to Let the Seizures Defeat Him. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nibbering 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nibbering 2014; Rettig and Neher 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rettig and Neher 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Jokat et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLarge-scale Assessments in Education
AbbreviationLarge Scale Assess. Educ.
ISSN (online)2196-0739

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