How to format your references using the Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hajduk SL. Microbiology. Timing the sexual development of parasites. Science. 2006 Aug;313(5787):626–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao Y, Bando Y. Carbon nanothermometer containing gallium. Nature. 2002 Feb;415(6872):599.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown T, Sibbett W, Wright EM. Laser physics. Getting to grips with light. Science. 2001 Aug;293(5533):1265–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jordan IK, Kondrashov FA, Adzhubei IA, Wolf YI, Koonin EV, Kondrashov AS, et al. A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution. Nature. 2005 Feb;433(7026):633–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon T, Grossman S. Overcoming Resistant Personality Disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Sheridan SM. Conjoint Behavioral Consultation: Promoting Family–School Connections and Interventions. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Guipaud O. Serum and Plasma Proteomics and Its Possible Use as Detector and Predictor of Radiation Diseases. In: Leszczynski D, editor. Radiation Proteomics: The effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cells and tissues. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013; pp 61–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dermatology.

Blog post
Hale T. Does Lettuce Actually Get Your Rabbit Stoned? [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Jun [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Regional Airport Planning Could Help Address Congestion If Plans Were Integrated with FAA and Airport Decision Making. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Singh A. Improving the Usability of Typometric Solutions. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kleinfield NR, Oppel RA Jr, Eddy M. Moment in Convention Glare Stirs Parents’ American Life. New York Times. 2016 Aug;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDermatology
ISSN (print)1018-8665
ISSN (online)1421-9832

Other styles