How to format your references using the Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shonkoff JP. Protecting brains, not simply stimulating minds. Science. 2011 Aug;333(6045):982–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin W, Koonin EV. Introns and the origin of nucleus-cytosol compartmentalization. Nature. 2006 Mar;440(7080):41–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jablonski D, Roy K, Valentine JW. Out of the tropics: evolutionary dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Science. 2006 Oct;314(5796):102–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brinster S, Lamberet G, Staels B, Trieu-Cuot P, Gruss A, Poyart C. Type II fatty acid synthesis is not a suitable antibiotic target for Gram-positive pathogens. Nature. 2009 Mar;458(7234):83–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pan CT, Hwang YM, Lin L, Chen Y-C. Design and Fabrication of Self-Powered Micro-Harvesters. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Siddiqi K, Pizer SM, editors. Medial Representations: Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Stenzig J, Foo RS-Y. DNA Methylation in Heart Failure. In: Backs J, McKinsey TA, editors. Epigenetics in Cardiac Disease. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; pp 75–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dermatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. These Cute Sea Slugs Are The Sheep Of The Sea [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jul [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Cost Control Problems Are Worsening. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medina LM. Living with Global Shocks: Examining the Responses of Firms and Governments. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K. Marlo Thomas: “My Whole Life I’ve Had My Dukes Up.” New York Times. 1973 Mar;AL135.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDermatology
ISSN (print)1018-8665
ISSN (online)1421-9832

Other styles