How to format your references using the Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quaas J. Atmosphere. Smoke and climate change. Science. 2009 Jul;325(5937):153–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dar-Nimrod I, Heine SJ. Exposure to scientific theories affects women’s math performance. Science. 2006 Oct;314(5798):435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jordan SP, Lee KSM, Preskill J. Quantum algorithms for quantum field theories. Science. 2012 Jun;336(6085):1130–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ozer MM, Jia Y, Zhang Z, Thompson JR, Weitering HH. Tuning the quantum stability and superconductivity of ultrathin metal alloys. Science. 2007 Jun;316(5831):1594–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cabaniss DL, Cherry S, Douglas CJ, Graver RL, Schwartz AR. Psychodynamic Formulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Baldoni M, Baresi L, Dastani M, editors. Engineering Multi-Agent Systems: Third International Workshop, EMAS 2015, Istanbul, Turkey, May 5, 2015, Revised, Selected, and Invited Papers. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomas MOJ, Palmer JM. Teaching with Digital Technology: Obstacles and Opportunities. In: Clark-Wilson A, Robutti O, Sinclair N, editors. The Mathematics Teacher in the Digital Era: An International Perspective on Technology Focused Professional Development. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014; pp 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dermatology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Why One Glacier Isn’t Melting In a Warming World [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Oct [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kott TM. Measurements of correlated two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level on silicon(111). 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Antitrust Policy Ambiguity To Be on Justices’ Docket. New York Times. 2006 Dec;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDermatology
ISSN (print)1018-8665
ISSN (online)1421-9832

Other styles