How to format your references using the Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Saper CB: Biomedicine. Life, the universe, and body temperature. Science 2006;314:773–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Monroe C, Kim J: Scaling the ion trap quantum processor. Science 2013;339:1164–1169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonifacio P, Limongi M, Chieffi A: Astrophysics: How did the metals in a giant star originate? Nature 2003;422:834.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hayward MA, Cussen EJ, Claridge JB, Bieringer M, Rosseinsky MJ, Kiely CJ, et al.: The hydride anion in an extended transition metal oxide array: LaSrCoO3H0.7. Science 2002;295:1882–1884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor B: Effective Environmental, Health, and Safety Management Using the Team Approach. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
Cowen R, Kazamias AM (eds): International Handbook of Comparative Education. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Gómez NJ: Urban Quality of Life in Santa Fe Province: Demographic, Social and Territorial Processes Between 1991 and 2010; in Tonon G (ed): Indicators of Quality of Life in Latin America. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 109–149.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dermatology.

Blog post
Hamilton K: Small Tropical Islands Could Become The World’s First 100% Renewable Nations. IFLScience 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information on State Versus Local Administration of CETA Prime Sponsors in Michigan. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domina NV: Gender and culture influences on leadership perceptions 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis G: Rossini and Contemporaries, Snuggly at Home in the Black Forest. New York Times 2012;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDermatology
ISSN (print)1018-8665
ISSN (online)1421-9832

Other styles