How to format your references using the Waste and Biomass Valorization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waste and Biomass Valorization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
ter Meulen, V.: Time to settle the synthetic controversy. Nature. 509, 135 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Duggavathi, R., Murphy, B.D.: Development. Ovulation signals. Science. 324, 890–891 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Vivier, E., Nunès, J.A., Vély, F.: Natural killer cell signaling pathways. Science. 306, 1517–1519 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ni, S., Tan, E., Gurnis, M., Helmberger, D.: Sharp sides to the African superplume. Science. 296, 1850–1852 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held, G.: Bulletproofing TCP/IP-based Windows NT/2000 Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2001)
An edited book
Buffone, M.G. ed: Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Kobayashi, M., Akiyama, M., Kise, H., Watanabe, T.: Unusual Tetrapyrrole Pigments of Photosynthetic Antennae and Reaction Centers: Specially-tailored Chlorophylls. In: Grimm, B., Porra, R.J., Rüdiger, W., and Scheer, H. (eds.) Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Functions and Applications. pp. 55–66. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waste and Biomass Valorization.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Possible New Alzheimer’s Drug Target Discovered,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Elementary School Children: Many Change Schools Frequently, Harming Their Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, G.: Roles of serotonin 2A receptor in a serotonin syndrome, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B.: Fear, Frustration and Fascination: Sharapova on Serena, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWaste and Biomass Valorization
AbbreviationWaste Biomass Valorization
ISSN (print)1877-2641
ISSN (online)1877-265X
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal

Other styles