How to format your references using the Waste and Biomass Valorization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waste and Biomass Valorization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schaffer, S.: The laird of physics. Nature. 471, 289–291 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhattachan, A., D’Odorico, P.: Can land use intensification in the Mallee, Australia increase the supply of soluble iron to the Southern Ocean? Sci. Rep. 4, 6009 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Eagleman, D.M., Jacobson, J.E., Sejnowski, T.J.: Perceived luminance depends on temporal context. Nature. 428, 854–856 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fleetwood, F., Klint, S., Hanze, M., Gunneriusson, E., Frejd, F.Y., Ståhl, S., Löfblom, J.: Simultaneous targeting of two ligand-binding sites on VEGFR2 using biparatopic Affibody molecules results in dramatically improved affinity. Sci. Rep. 4, 7518 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eylert, B.: The Mobile Multimedia Business. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006)
An edited book
Fuchs, A., Nijman, E., Priebsch, H.-H. eds: Automotive NVH Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Ding, N.: On Zero-Knowledge with Strict Polynomial-Time Simulation and Extraction from Differing-Input Obfuscation for Circuits. In: Lehmann, A. and Wolf, S. (eds.) Information Theoretic Security: 8th International Conference, ICITS 2015, Lugano, Switzerland, May 2-5, 2015. Proceedings. pp. 51–68. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waste and Biomass Valorization.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Live Webcast of Expeditions 41/42 Crew to ISS,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Shuttle: NASA’s Plans for Repairing or Replacing a Damaged or Destroyed Orbiter. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detweiler, K.R.: Exploring Discursive Interaction, Habitus, and Dynamic Co-emergence Among an Agency Leader and Congressional Oversight Committee: A Case Study of Languaging in Practice, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
O’connor, J.: Biking Through Badlands, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWaste and Biomass Valorization
AbbreviationWaste Biomass Valorization
ISSN (print)1877-2641
ISSN (online)1877-265X
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal

Other styles