How to format your references using the ACI Structural Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACI Structural Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. “Home and away,” Nature, V. 432, No. 7013, 2004, p. 127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pujol, B., and Pannell, J. R. “Reduced responses to selection after species range expansion,” Science (New York, N.Y.), V. 321, No. 5885, 2008, p. 96.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rohr, R. P., Saavedra, S., and Bascompte, J. “Ecological networks. On the structural stability of mutualistic systems,” Science (New York, N.Y.), V. 345, No. 6195, 2014, p. 1253497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Keung, A. J., Dong, M., Schaffer, D. V., et al. “Pan-neuronal maturation but not neuronal subtype differentiation of adult neural stem cells is mechanosensitive,” Scientific reports, V. 3, 2013, p. 1817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brodsky, B. S., and Stanley, B. “The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Primer,” Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Eyden, B. “The Ultrastructure of Human Tumours: Applications in Diagnosis and Research,” Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2013, XVI, 680 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiayias, A., and Pehlivanoglu, S. “Pirate Evolution.” In: Pehlivanoglu, S., ed. Encryption for Digital Content. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2010. pp. 171–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACI Structural Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. “Chemists show how life on Earth may have started.” IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “District of Columbia Public Schools: Important Steps Taken to Continue Reform Efforts, But Enhanced Planning Could Improve Implementation and Sustainability,” Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigler, W. H. “Increased substance abuse treatment for adolescents.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K., and Lyall, S. “Fans of These Dogs Say Bald Is Beautiful,” New York Times, 2017, p. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleACI Structural Journal
ISSN (print)0889-3241
ISSN (online)1944-7361

Other styles