How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brian T. Chait. 2006. Chemistry. Mass spectrometry: bottom-up or top-down? Science 314, 5796 (October 2006), 65–66.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xianfeng Yi and Changqu Liu. 2014. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings. Sci. Rep. 4, (June 2014), 5145.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liqiang Huang, Anne Treisman, and Harold Pashler. 2007. Characterizing the limits of human visual awareness. Science 317, 5839 (August 2007), 823–825.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zongyuan Wang, Jiajun Wang, Minyue Li, Kaihang Sun, and Chang-Jun Liu. 2014. Three-dimensional printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene framework coated with Cu-BTC metal-organic frameworks for the removal of methylene blue. Sci. Rep. 4, (August 2014), 5939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gregory H. Duckert. 2010. Practical Enterprise Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Antonio Marcomini, Glenn Walter Suter II, and Andrea Critto (Eds.). 2009. Decision Support Systems for Risk-Based Management of Contaminated Sites. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Olivier Commowick and Simon K. Warfield. 2010. Incorporating Priors on Expert Performance Parameters for Segmentation Validation and Label Fusion: A Maximum a Posteriori STAPLE. In Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2010: 13th International Conference, Beijing, China, September 20-24, 2010, Proceedings, Part III, Tianzi Jiang, Nassir Navab, Josien P. W. Pluim and Max A. Viergever (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems.

Blog post
Robin Andrews. 2017. Game-Changing Gene Therapy Nullifies Patient’s Sickle Cell Disease. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Summary Analysis of Federal Commercial Aviation Taxes and Fees. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashley Cross. 2017. Tinkering in k-12: an exploratory mixed methods study of makerspaces in schools as an application of constructivist learning. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
John Leland. 2017. Dance Moves, Everywhere. New York Times, MB8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems
ISSN (print)1556-4665
ISSN (online)1556-4703

Other styles