How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haley Gomez. 2014. Astrophysics: Survival of the largest. Nature 511, 7509 (July 2014), 296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joe H. S. Macquaker and Kevin M. Bohacs. 2007. Geology. On the accumulation of mud. Science 318, 5857 (December 2007), 1734–1735.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jonathan L. C. Lee, Barry J. Everitt, and Kerrie L. Thomas. 2004. Independent cellular processes for hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Science 304, 5672 (May 2004), 839–843.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Amy C. Seila, J. Mauro Calabrese, Stuart S. Levine, Gene W. Yeo, Peter B. Rahl, Ryan A. Flynn, Richard A. Young, and Phillip A. Sharp. 2008. Divergent transcription from active promoters. Science 322, 5909 (December 2008), 1849–1851.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larry Shover. 2010. Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Stephen J. Pearton. 2006. Gallium Nitride Processing for Electronics, Sensors and Spintronics. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Alena Kocmanová, Marie Dočekalová, and Jiří Luňáček. 2013. PROMETHEE-GAIA Method as a Support of the Decision-Making Process in Evaluating Technical Facilities. In Environmental Software Systems. Fostering Information Sharing: 10th IFIP WG 5.11 International Symposium, ISESS 2013, Neusiedl am See, Austria, October 9-11, 2013. Proceedings, Jiří Hřebíček, Gerald Schimak, Miroslav Kubásek and Andrea E. Rizzoli (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 44–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems.

Blog post
Robin Andrews. 2017. Ancient Martian Megatsunamis Connected To Giant Impact Crater. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Information Technology: VA and DOD Continue to Expand Sharing of Medical Information, but Still Lack Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nancy Joanna Ionedes. 2008. An exploration of social interest therapy as a treatment for depression in the elderly. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Benanav. 2017. A Way of Life, Fading Away. New York Times, TR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems
ISSN (print)1556-4665
ISSN (online)1556-4703

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