How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jeremiah P. Ostriker. 2005. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall 1935-2005. Nature 437, 7055 (September 2005), 43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katherine R. Mattaini and Matthew G. Vander Heiden. 2012. Cancer. Glycosylation to adapt to stress. Science 337, 6097 (August 2012), 925–926.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bei Deng, R. Q. Zhang, and X. Q. Shi. 2014. New insight into the spin-conserving excitation of the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Sci. Rep. 4, (June 2014), 5144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Edo Waks, Kyo Inoue, Charles Santori, David Fattal, Jelena Vuckovic, Glenn S. Solomon, and Yoshihisa Yamamoto. 2002. Secure communication: quantum cryptography with a photon turnstile. Nature 420, 6917 (2002), 762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riccardo Rebonato. 2004. Volatility and Correlation. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Michael Jünger and Volker Kaibel (Eds.). 2005. Integer Programming and Combinatorial Optimization: 11th International IPCO Conference, Berlin, Germany, June 8-10, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Yano. 2006. Principle of Insertion and Characteristics. In Double-Balloon Endoscopy: Theory and Practice, Kentaro Sugano, Hironori Yamamoto and Hiroto Kita (eds.). Springer Japan, Tokyo, 19–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems.

Blog post
Tom Hale. 2016. Police Use DNA To Create “Sketch” Of Suspected Murderer. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. District of Columbia: Inmate Participation in Correctional Programs and Previous Lorton Confinements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matthew Wayne Deshotel. 2017. Enhancing Undergraduate Water Resources Engineering Education Using Data and Modeling Resources Situated in Real-world Ecosystems: Design Principles and Challenges for Scaling and Sustainability. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ben Protess. 2016. Apollo Global Settles Securities Case as the S.E.C. Imposes a $53 Million Fine. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4–6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems
ISSN (print)1556-4665
ISSN (online)1556-4703

Other styles