How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarah DeWeerdt. 2013. Genetics: written in blood. Nature 498, 7455 (June 2013), S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Hall and R. J. Stouffer. 2001. An abrupt climate event in a coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation without external forcing. Nature 409, 6817 (January 2001), 171–174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benjamin F. Cravatt, Gabriel M. Simon, and John R. Yates 3rd. 2007. The biological impact of mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 450, 7172 (December 2007), 991–1000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jing Huang, Laura Perez-Burgos, Brandon J. Placek, Roopsha Sengupta, Mario Richter, Jean A. Dorsey, Stefan Kubicek, Susanne Opravil, Thomas Jenuwein, and Shelley L. Berger. 2006. Repression of p53 activity by Smyd2-mediated methylation. Nature 444, 7119 (November 2006), 629–632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aparna V. Huzurbazar. 2004. Flowgraph Models for Multistate Time-to-Event Data: Huzurbazar/Flowgraph Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Polina Golland, Nobuhiko Hata, Christian Barillot, Joachim Hornegger, and Robert Howe (Eds.). 2014. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2014: 17th International Conference, Boston, MA, USA, September 14-18, 2014, Proceedings, Part III. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ulrich Küster and Birgitta König-Ries. 2010. Measures for Benchmarking Semantic Web Service Matchmaking Correctness. In The Semantic Web: Research and Applications: 7th Extended Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2010, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 30 – June 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Lora Aroyo, Grigoris Antoniou, Eero Hyvönen, Annette Ten Teije, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, Liliana Cabral and Tania Tudorache (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems.

Blog post
Alfredo Carpineti. 2017. Exoplanet As Dense As Styrofoam Might Teach Us A Lot About Planetary Atmospheres. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Delegation of GSA Procurement Authority for Automatic Data Processing Equipment Acquisitions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amy L. Britt. 2014. The Long-Term Impact of Preschool Education on Student Achievement. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
John Koblin and Nick Corasaniti. 2017. One Nation, Under Fox. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [4–6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems
ISSN (print)1556-4665
ISSN (online)1556-4703

Other styles