How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yidong Chong. 2013. Optical devices: photonic insulators with a twist. Nature 496, 7444 (April 2013), 173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Sachdev and O. A. Starykh. 2000. Thermally fluctuating superconductors in two dimensions. Nature 405, 6784 (May 2000), 322–325.
A journal article with 3 authors
Isabel Kurth, Roxana E. Georgescu, and Mike E. O’Donnell. 2013. A solution to release twisted DNA during chromosome replication by coupled DNA polymerases. Nature 496, 7443 (April 2013), 119–122.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choongseob Oh, Soonyong Park, Eun Kyung Lee, and Yung Joon Yoo. 2013. Downregulation of ubiquitin level via knockdown of polyubiquitin gene Ubb as potential cancer therapeutic intervention. Sci. Rep. 3, (2013), 2623.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michael Minelli, Michele Chambers, and Ambiga Dhiraj. 2013. Big Data, Big Analytics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
David M. Whitacre (Ed.). 2010. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 209. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
David Martin, Mark Rouncefield, and Wes Sharrock. 2007. Complex Organisational Responsibilities: The Ladbroke Grove Rail Inquiry. In Responsibility and Dependable Systems, Guy Dewsbury and John Dobson (eds.). Springer, London, 66–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems.

Blog post
Janet Fang. 2015. Tiny Meat-Eating Dinosaur Discovered in Jurassic Welsh Rocks. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Homeland Security: Weak Oversight of Human Resources Information Technology Investment Needs Considerable Improvement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terry VanQuickenborne. 2010. Exploring generative change. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George Gene Gustines. 2010. Neil Young’s Greendale, Illustrated. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems
ISSN (print)1556-4665
ISSN (online)1556-4703

Other styles