How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O. Smith. 2001. Chemistry. Nota bene: know thine enemy. Science 294, 5545 (November 2001), 1298.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. P. Corten and H. F. Veldkamp. 2001. Aerodynamics. Insects can halve wind-turbine power. Nature 412, 6842 (July 2001), 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matthew J. Neale, Jing Pan, and Scott Keeney. 2005. Endonucleolytic processing of covalent protein-linked DNA double-strand breaks. Nature 436, 7053 (August 2005), 1053–1057.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Eugene Turner, Joseph J. Baustian, Erick M. Swenson, and Jennifer S. Spicer. 2006. Wetland sedimentation from hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Science 314, 5798 (October 2006), 449–452.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tomasz R. Bielecki, Damiano Brigo, and Fédéric Patras. 2011. Credit Risk Frontiers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Aske Plaat, Jaap van den Herik, and Walter Kosters (Eds.). 2015. Advances in Computer Games: 14th International Conference, ACG 2015, Leiden, The Netherlands, July 1-3, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Matthew W. Gosney and Claretha Hughes. 2016. The Industrial Revolution. In The History of Human Resource Development: Understanding the Unexplored Philosophies, Theories, and Methodologies, Claretha Hughes (ed.). Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 75–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2014. What Happens When Lava Meets Ice? IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Involvement of the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, in the Development of an Information System Called the College Suggestor. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rudolf H. Potter. 2017. Marx Generator Charged via Biperiodic Resonant Cascaded Transformers. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Paulson. 2017. A Last Wish From Albee: Destroy Work Left Undone. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems
ISSN (print)1556-4665
ISSN (online)1556-4703

Other styles