How to format your references using the Visualization in Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visualization in Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, C. (2009). Plant bar code soon to become reality. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940), 526.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dauphas, N., & Pourmand, A. (2011). Hf-W-Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo. Nature, 473(7348), 489–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Y.-Z., Huang, Z.-G., & Lai, Y.-C. (2014). Controlling extreme events on complex networks. Scientific reports, 4, 6121.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bénazet, J.-D., Bischofberger, M., Tiecke, E., Gonçalves, A., Martin, J. F., Zuniga, A., et al. (2009). A self-regulatory system of interlinked signaling feedback loops controls mouse limb patterning. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917), 1050–1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, A. K. M. E., Arashi, M., & Tabatabaey, S. M. M. (2014). Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lozano, A. M., Gildenberg, P. L., & Tasker, R. R. (Eds.). (2009). Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Karamolegkos, P., Maroudas, A., & Manouselis, N. (2010). Application Profiling for Rural Communities: eGov Services and Training Resources in Rural Inclusion. In S. Sánchez-Alonso & I. N. Athanasiadis (Eds.), Metadata and Semantic Research: 4th International Conference, MTSR 2010, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, October 20-22, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 46–56). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visualization in Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 23). When Your Body Becomes Your Password, The End Of The Login Is Nigh. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Proposed Closure of VOA Dixon Relay Station (No. ID-79-42). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tripathi, R. B. (2008). Oligodendrogensis Following Experimental Spinal Cord Injury (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Palmer, E. (2016, December 20). Serving as a Role Model During a Father’s Absence. New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Dauphas and Pourmand 2011; Thomas 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dauphas and Pourmand 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bénazet et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisualization in Engineering
AbbreviationVis. Eng.
ISSN (online)2213-7459

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