How to format your references using the Visualization in Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visualization in Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rice, T. M. (2002). Quantum mechanics. To condense or not to condense. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5594), 760–761.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yamamoto, J., & Tanaka, H. (2001). Transparent nematic phase in a liquid-crystal-based microemulsion. Nature, 409(6818), 321–325.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zaimi, K., Ishak, A., & Pop, I. (2014). Boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid. Scientific reports, 4, 4404.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Siegel, G., Prestgard, M. C., Teng, S., & Tiwari, A. (2014). Robust longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in Bi-YIG thin films. Scientific reports, 4, 4429.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alacoque, J. C. (2012). Direct Eigen Control for Induction Machines and Synchronous Motors. Chichester, UK: A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bansal, N., & Finocchi, I. (Eds.). (2015). Algorithms - ESA 2015: 23rd Annual European Symposium, Patras, Greece, September 14-16, 2015, Proceedings (Vol. 9294). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Calgaro, C. O., Tanabe, E. H., Bertuol, D. A., Silvas, F. P. C., Espinosa, D. C. R., & Tenório, J. A. S. (2015). Leaching Processes. In H. M. Veit & A. Moura Bernardes (Eds.), Electronic Waste: Recycling Techniques (pp. 39–59). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visualization in Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 7). Hitchhiking Robot Treks Across Canada. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Airline Competition: The Average Number of Competitors in Markets Serving the Majority of Passengers Has Changed Little in Recent Years, but Stakeholders Voice Concerns about Competition (No. GAO-14-515). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Molina-Gutierrez, E. (2009). Keys to my home: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Nixon, R. (2017, June 11). Vetting Is Little Changed Since Calls for Travel Ban. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rice 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Rice 2002; Yamamoto and Tanaka 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yamamoto and Tanaka 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Siegel et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisualization in Engineering
AbbreviationVis. Eng.
ISSN (online)2213-7459

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