How to format your references using the Visualization in Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visualization in Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garwin, L. (2005). Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 4. Nature, 433(7026), 579.
A journal article with 2 authors
Larrick, R. P., & Soll, J. B. (2008). Economics. The MPG illusion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5883), 1593–1594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, Y.-T. N., Yuan, X., & Velicer, G. J. (2010). Adaptive evolution of an sRNA that controls Myxococcus development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5981), 993.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, Q., Wang, L., Frutos, A. G., Condon, A. E., Corn, R. M., & Smith, L. M. (2000). DNA computing on surfaces. Nature, 403(6766), 175–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Love, J., & Bryant, J. A. (2017). Biofuels and Bioenergy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Andrica, D. (2009). Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems. (T. Andreescu, Ed.). Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Kifer, M., & Smolka, S. A. (2007). Threads: Management and Scheduling of Threads. In S. A. Smolka (Ed.), Introduction to Operating System Design and Implementation: The OSP 2 Approach (pp. 57–73). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visualization in Engineering.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, October 6). Rare Wandering Black Hole Spotted Drifting Alone Through A Distant Galaxy. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Airline Competition: DOT’s Implementation of Airline Regulatory Authority (No. RCED-89-93). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya, S. (2013). Characterization of Interaction of Calmodulin and its Chimeras with Orai1 (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Khodarkovsky, M. (2017, May 18). Russia’s age-old identity question. New York Times, p. 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garwin 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Garwin 2005; Larrick and Soll 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Larrick and Soll 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisualization in Engineering
AbbreviationVis. Eng.
ISSN (online)2213-7459

Other styles