How to format your references using the Visualization in Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visualization in Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. (2011). Medical research masterclass. Nature, 478(7368), S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abraham, R. G., & van Den Bergh, S. (2001). The morphological evolution of galaxies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5533), 1273–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pohl, M. E. D., Pope, K. O., & von Nagy, C. (2002). Olmec origins of Mesoamerican writing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5600), 1984–1987.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moore, J. P., Klasse, P. J., Dolan, M. J., & Ahuja, S. K. (2008). AIDS/HIV. A STEP into darkness or light? Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5877), 753–755.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stenholm, S., & Suominen, K.-A. (2005). Quantum Approach to Informatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dapor, M. (2005). Elaborazione dei dati sperimentali. (M. Ropele, Ed.). Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Deng, J., Chen, Z., Knisely, J., Decker, R., Chiang, V., & Nath, R. (2009). Monte Carlo Investigation of Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Spinal Metastases. In O. Dössel & W. C. Schlegel (Eds.), World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/1 Radiation Oncology (pp. 13–16). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visualization in Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 22). Live From The International Space Station! IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Student Mentoring Programs: Education’s Monitoring and Information Sharing Could Be Improved (No. GAO-04-581). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Besson, P. S. (2015). Affective Organizational Commitment: A Comparative View of the Experience of 5-7 Year Managerial Employees Who Participated in an Employee Identity Network (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2000, November 5). Doing Business In Small Quarters. New York Times, p. 14WC8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Abraham and van Den Bergh 2001; Grayson 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abraham and van Den Bergh 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Moore et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisualization in Engineering
AbbreviationVis. Eng.
ISSN (online)2213-7459

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