How to format your references using the Visual Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vedral V (2008). Quantifying entanglement in macroscopic systems. Nature 453, 1004–1007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Forterre Y & Dumais J (2011). Materials science. Generating helices in nature. Science 333, 1715–1716.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishiyama T, Ohsumi K & Kishimoto T (2007). Phosphorylation of Erp1 by p90rsk is required for cytostatic factor arrest in Xenopus laevis eggs. Nature 446, 1096–1099.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Pochan DJ, Chen Z, Cui H, Hales K, Qi K & Wooley KL (2004). Toroidal triblock copolymer assemblies. Science 306, 94–97.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou C (2013). Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Li H ed. (2015). Radiology of Infectious Diseases: Volume 1, 1st ed. 2015. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim SH, Mun Y & Choi HI (2008). Improved Curvature Scale Space Based on Image Retrieval Using Dynamic Time Warping. In Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2008: International Conference, Perugia, Italy, June 30– July 3, 2008, Proceedings, Part II, ed. Gervasi O, Murgante B, Laganà A, Taniar D, Mun Y & Gavrilova ML, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 32–42. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Neuroscience.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015). Study Reveals That Your Cat Is Basically A Tiny Lion. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Status of the EF-111A Tactical Jamming System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selby C (2015). With|out (Doctoral dissertation thesis). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017). Film Series. New York TimesC23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vedral, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Vedral, 2008; Forterre & Dumais, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Forterre & Dumais, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Pochan et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Neuroscience
AbbreviationVis. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0952-5238
ISSN (online)1469-8714
Sensory Systems

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