How to format your references using the Visual Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rishbeth H (2002). High above the Earth. Nature 418, 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heyes CM & Frith CD (2014). The cultural evolution of mind reading. Science 344, 1243091.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakellariou D, Le Goff G & Jacquinot J-F (2007). High-resolution, high-sensitivity NMR of nanolitre anisotropic samples by coil spinning. Nature 447, 694–697.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Stickley CE, St John K, Koç N, Jordan RW, Passchier S, Pearce RB & Kearns LE (2009). Evidence for middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from diatoms and ice-rafted debris. Nature 460, 376–379.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fencott C, Lockyer M, Clay J & Massey P (2012). Game Invaders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bacon D, Martin-Delgado M & Roetteler M eds. (2014). Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication, and Cryptography: 6th Conference, TQC 2011, Madrid, Spain, May 24-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Thakuriah P & Geers DG (2013). Institutional and Policy Factors in ICT-Based Mobility Services. In Transportation and Information: Trends in Technology and Policy, ed. Geers DG, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science, pp. 73–96. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Neuroscience.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017). Galactic Alignment Happened Just After The Dawn Of The Universe. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983). [Perspectives on Evaluating Federally Sponsored Research and Development in the United States]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds PE (2012). Learning the Ropes: A Grounded Theory Study of Children Crossing Cultures (Doctoral dissertation thesis). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010). How Broken Must College Football Be to Fix It? New York TimesB11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rishbeth, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Rishbeth, 2002; Heyes & Frith, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heyes & Frith, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Stickley et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Neuroscience
AbbreviationVis. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0952-5238
ISSN (online)1469-8714
Sensory Systems

Other styles