How to format your references using the Visual Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasevich MA (2002). Coherence with atoms. Science 298, 1363–1368.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis CS & McGillicuddy DJ Jr (2006). Transatlantic abundance of the N2-fixing colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Science 312, 1517–1520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajca A, Wongsriratanakul J & Rajca S (2001). Magnetic ordering in an organic polymer. Science 294, 1503–1505.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Cottrell RD, Tarduno JA, Sager WW & Koppers AA (2000). Late cretaceous true polar wander: not so fast. Science 288, 2283a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levy D (2011). Practical Diabetes Care. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Perales FJ & Kittler J eds. (2016). Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects: 9th International Conference, AMDO 2016, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Senani R, Bhaskar DR, Singh AK & Singh VK (2013). Design of Filters Using CFOAs. In Current Feedback Operational Amplifiers and Their Applications, ed. Bhaskar DR, Singh AK & Singh VK, pp. 81–130. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Neuroscience.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016). Miniature Black Holes May Be Hitting Earth Once Every 1,000 Years. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). Use of Program Income by Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment Centers Supported by OBEMLA. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Geist C (2008). The marriage economy: Examining the economic impact and the context of marriage in comparative perspective (Doctoral dissertation thesis). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2006). Suozzi Offers Plan to Shore Up Aviation Museum. New York Times14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kasevich, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kasevich, 2002; Davis & McGillicuddy, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis & McGillicuddy, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Cottrell et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Neuroscience
AbbreviationVis. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0952-5238
ISSN (online)1469-8714
Sensory Systems

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