How to format your references using the Visual Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markó IE (2001). Natural product synthesis. The art of total synthesis. Science 294, 1842–1843.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang W & Aida T (2012). Chemistry. Thermally responsive pulsating nanotubules. Science 337, 1462–1463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee A, Dennis C & Campbell P (2007). Nature’s guide for mentors. Nature 447, 791–797.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Zhu M, Ahlberg PE, Zhao W & Jia L (2002). Palaeontology: first Devonian tetrapod from Asia. Nature 420, 760–761.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szczecinski L & Alvarado A (2014). Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Huggan G & Jensen L eds. (2016). Postcolonial Perspectives on the European High North: Unscrambling the Arctic. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Costabile LT, Vendrametto O, de Oliveira Neto GC, Neto MM & Shibuya MK (2015). Social Network Analysis on Grain Production in the Brazilian Scenario. In Advances in Production Management Systems: Innovative Production Management Towards Sustainable Growth: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2015, Tokyo, Japan, September 7-9, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, ed. Umeda S, Nakano M, Mizuyama H, Hibino N, Kiritsis D & von Cieminski G, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, pp. 36–44. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Neuroscience.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014). Scientists Discover A Novel Mechanism Of Action Of Cannabidiol Against Lung Cancer Cells. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Computer Procurement: FAA’s $1.5-Billion Computer Resources Nucleus Project. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers SL (2017). Fear of Cancer and Theory of Planned Behavior as Predictors of Pap Screenings (Doctoral dissertation thesis). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W (2014). In Colombia, Two Warring Officials Provide a Portrait of a Nation’s Political Divide. New York TimesA6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Markó, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Markó, 2001; Zhang & Aida, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang & Aida, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Neuroscience
AbbreviationVis. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0952-5238
ISSN (online)1469-8714
Sensory Systems

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