How to format your references using the Energy for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Browse, J. (2010). Plant science. Saving the bilayer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6001), 185–186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bers, D. M., & Harris, S. P. (2011). Translational medicine: to the rescue of the failing heart. Nature, 473(7345), 36–39.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kernbauer, E., Ding, Y., & Cadwell, K. (2014). An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria. Nature, 516(7529), 94–98.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hale, R. C., La Guardia, M. J., Harvey, E. P., Gaylor, M. O., Mainor, T. M., & Duff, W. H. (2001). Flame retardants. Persistent pollutants in land-applied sludges. Nature, 412(6843), 140–141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu, P. P. (2008). FPGA Prototyping by Verilog Examples. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hashim, R., & Abdul Majeed, A. B. (Eds.). (2015). Proceedings of the Colloquium on Administrative Science and Technology: CoAST 2013. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Casu, B., & Gall, A. (2016). Financial Structure of the Building Society Sector. In A. Gall (Ed.), Building Societies in the Financial Services Industry (pp. 61–77). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, September 8). A Russian River Has Suddenly Turned Blood Red. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses (GAO-05-465T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pokhrel, P. (2010). Towards improved identification of spatially-distributed rainfall runoff models [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt, E., & Qiu, L. (2017, April 27). Digging Into Argument For a Wall on the Border. New York Times, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Browse, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bers & Harris, 2011; Browse, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bers & Harris, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Kernbauer et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hale et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationEnergy Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)0973-0826
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles