How to format your references using the Energy for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons, J. G. (2010). Timeline: Lindau and the zeitgeist. Nature, 467(7317), S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chatterjee, S., & Callaway, E. M. (2003). Parallel colour-opponent pathways to primary visual cortex. Nature, 426(6967), 668–671.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dong, H., Wen, B., & Melnik, R. (2014). Relative importance of grain boundaries and size effects in thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline materials. Scientific Reports, 4, 7037.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
de Almeida, A. M. R., Yockteng, R., Schnable, J., Alvarez-Buylla, E. R., Freeling, M., & Specht, C. D. (2014). Co-option of the polarity gene network shapes filament morphology in angiosperms. Scientific Reports, 4, 6194.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lévy, P. (2013). The Semantic Sphere 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Panico, G. (2016). The Composite Nambu-Goldstone Higgs (A. Wulzer, Ed.; Vol. 913). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosenkrantz, D. J., Stearns, R. E., & Lewis, P. M. (2009). System Level Concurrency Control for Distributed Database Systems. In S. S. Ravi & S. K. Shukla (Eds.), Fundamental Problems in Computing: Essays in Honor of Professor Daniel J. Rosenkrantz (pp. 71–98). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 30). Researchers Develop An Experimental MERS Vaccine. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Communications: Mobile Subscriber Equipment Testing Issues and Army Improvement Plan (NSIAD-89-165BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kargbo, A. H. (2019). An Approach to Dynamic Resource Allocation for Electric Power Disaster Response Management [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N. (2016, September 25). Russia, Jailer of Local Separatists, Hosts Foreign Ones. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simmons, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Chatterjee & Callaway, 2003; Simmons, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chatterjee & Callaway, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Dong et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (de Almeida et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationEnergy Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)0973-0826
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles