How to format your references using the Energy for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson, S. T. (2009). History of science. Alexander von Humboldt and the general physics of the Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5927), 596–597.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holme, P., & Liljeros, F. (2014). Birth and death of links control disease spreading in empirical contact networks. Scientific Reports, 4, 4999.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang, H. C., Paek, J., & Kim, D. H. (2011). Natural polymorphisms in C. elegans HECW-1 E3 ligase affect pathogen avoidance behaviour. Nature, 480(7378), 525–529.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sevinçli, H., Sevik, C., Caın, T., & Cuniberti, G. (2013). A bottom-up route to enhance thermoelectric figures of merit in graphene nanoribbons. Scientific Reports, 3, 1228.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Featherstone, H., & Holt, E. (2011). Small Animal Ophthalmology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Banu, N. (2016). Livelihood and Wellbeing in the Urban Fringe (S. Fazal, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ledger, S., Vidovich, L., & O’Donoghue, T. (2014). Case Study One: Satu International School (SIS). In L. Vidovich & T. O’Donoghue (Eds.), Global to Local Curriculum Policy Processes: The Enactment of the International Baccalaureate in Remote International Schools (pp. 85–107). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 26). Oldest Known Neanderthal Construction Found In French Cave Is 176,000 Years Old. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Mass Transit Grants: If Properly Implemented, FTA Initiatives Should Improve Oversight (RCED-93-8). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, R. D. (2008). Designing an autonomous helicopter testbed: From conception through implementation [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2006, August 20). An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move. New York Times, 14WC5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jackson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Holme & Liljeros, 2014; Jackson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holme & Liljeros, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Chang et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sevinçli et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationEnergy Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)0973-0826
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles