How to format your references using the Energy for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellis, J. (2012). Higgs boson: The need for new physics. Nature, 481(7379), 24.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conrad, C. P., & Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. (2002). How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5591), 207–209.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhowmick, N. A., Neilson, E. G., & Moses, H. L. (2004). Stromal fibroblasts in cancer initiation and progression. Nature, 432(7015), 332–337.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, W., Timonen, J. V. I., Carlson, A., Drotlef, D.-M., Zhang, C. T., Kolle, S., Grinthal, A., Wong, T.-S., Hatton, B., Kang, S. H., Kennedy, S., Chi, J., Blough, R. T., Sitti, M., Mahadevan, L., & Aizenberg, J. (2018). Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography. Nature, 559(7712), 77–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas, A. (2005). Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tserpes, K. I., & Silvestre, N. (Eds.). (2014). Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and their Composites (Vol. 188). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Levis, A. A., & Papageorgiou, L. G. (2009). Active demand management for substitute products through price optimisation. In H. Meyr & H.-O. Günther (Eds.), Supply Chain Planning: Quantitative Decision Support and Advanced Planning Solutions (pp. 1–27). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 7). The Ridiculously Powerful Claws Of The Mantis Shrimp Have A Secret Armor Pattern. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). President’s Eighth Special Message for Fiscal Year 1981 (OGC-81-9). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fay, C. (2017). Aposematic Variation and the Evolution of Warning Coloration in Mammals [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Howe, S. H. (1904, August 6). Mandan Territory, U.S.A. New York Times, PART TWO SATURDAY REVIEW OF BOOKSBR534.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ellis, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Conrad & Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2002; Ellis, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Conrad & Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Bhowmick et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationEnergy Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)0973-0826
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles