How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gershon D. Are mega-mergers good medicine for the pharmaceutical industry? Nature. 2000;405:257–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Elser J, Bennett E. Phosphorus cycle: A broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature. 2011;478:29–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hayden BY, Pearson JM, Platt ML. Fictive reward signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. Science. 2009;324:948–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yadav AP, Fuentes R, Zhang H, Vinholo T, Wang C-H, Freire MAM, et al. Chronic spinal cord electrical stimulation protects against 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3839.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Remy J-G, Letamendia C. LTE Services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Haszpra L, editor. Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sprogies M, Schmidt W. Introducing S-BPM at an IT Service Providers. In: Fleischmann A, Schmidt W, Stary C, editors. S-BPM in the Wild: Practical Value Creation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 55–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Oncology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Even Buying Online, Choices Can Embarrass Us [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/even-buying-online-choices-can-embarrass-us/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Best Practices Can Improve Performance and Produce Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Feb. Report No.: T-AIMD-96-46.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Conner PA. The STAR Math test as a predictor of Arkansas BenchmarkTest scores [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Pain, Protest and Resistance. New York Times. 2017 Oct 17;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Oncology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1699-048X
ISSN (online)1699-3055
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine
Oncology

Other styles