How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bohannon J. Why do scientists dance? Science. 2010;330:752.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ziauddin J, Sabatini DM. Microarrays of cells expressing defined cDNAs. Nature. 2001;411:107–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kildishev AV, Boltasseva A, Shalaev VM. Planar photonics with metasurfaces. Science. 2013;339:1232009.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Driskell AC, Ané C, Burleigh JG, McMahon MM, O’meara BC, Sanderson MJ. Prospects for building the tree of life from large sequence databases. Science. 2004;306:1172–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Knowles R. 200 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Preston V, editor. Lewis & Clark: Weather and Climate Data from the Expedition Journals. Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ploussard G, Hoznek A, Salomon L, Abbou CC, de la Taille A. Retroperitoneoscopic Simple and Radical Nephrectomy. In: Joseph JV, Patel HRH, editors. Retroperitoneal Robotic and Laparoscopic Surgery: The Extraperitoneal Approach. London: Springer; 2011. p. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Oncology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Why Some Female Birds Are Just As Colorful As The Males. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Command and Control: Upgrades Allow Deferral of $500 Million Computer Acquisition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Feb. Report No.: IMTEC-88-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ploehs JR. The literacy benefits of middle school tutors who tutor emergent readers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. ‘Everyone Wants to See Zara.’ New York Times. 2012 Jul 31;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Oncology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1699-048X
ISSN (online)1699-3055
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine
Oncology

Other styles