How to format your references using the Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rezende EL. Evolution. Better oxygen delivery. Science. 2013;340(6138):1293-1294.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dunham-Snary KJ, Ballinger SW. GENETICS. Mitochondrial-nuclear DNA mismatch matters. Science. 2015;349(6255):1449-1450.
A journal article with 3 authors
Couch S, Sparks RS, Carroll MR. Mineral disequilibrium in lavas explained by convective self-mixing in open magma chambers. Nature. 2001;411(6841):1037-1039.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lipman EA, Schuler B, Bakajin O, Eaton WA. Single-molecule measurement of protein folding kinetics. Science. 2003;301(5637):1233-1235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crichton RR, Ward RJ. Metal-Based Neurodegeneration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Dalton TC, Evans RB, eds. The Life Cycle of Psychological Ideas: Understanding Prominence and the Dynamics of Intellectual Change. Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Overmann J. Principles of Enrichment, Isolation, Cultivation and Preservation of Prokaryotes. In: Dworkin M, Falkow S, Rosenberg E, Schleifer KH, Stackebrandt E, eds. The Prokaryotes: Volume 1: Symbiotic Associations, Biotechnology, Applied Microbiology. Springer; 2006:80-136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Sea Level Rise May Mean That The UK Loses Some Of Its Mountains. IFLScience. Published October 10, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. No Child Left Behind Act: Education Could Do More to Help States Better Define Graduation Rates and Improve Knowledge about Intervention Strategies. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sidwell MD. Indirect Measures as Predictors of Social Skills Observed through Means of Direct Observation. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Climbing the Walls Beats Cabin Fever. New York Times. November 20, 2005:14LI16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationVis. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)2405-4690
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles