How to format your references using the Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ryan AJ. Journal club. A chemist welcomes an ingenious advance in plastics technology. Nature. 2009;458(7238):553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shuler MG, Bear MF. Reward timing in the primary visual cortex. Science. 2006;311(5767):1606-1609.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCarter J, Boge G, Darlow G. Essays on science and society. Safeguarding the world’s natural treasures. Science. 2001;294(5549):2099-2101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zheng Y, Danilenko DM, Valdez P, et al. Interleukin-22, a T(H)17 cytokine, mediates IL-23-induced dermal inflammation and acanthosis. Nature. 2007;445(7128):648-651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kanel GC. Pathology of Liver Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Moukalled F. The Finite Volume Method in Computational Fluid Dynamics: An Advanced Introduction with OpenFOAM® and Matlab. Vol 113. 1st ed. 2015. (Mangani L, Darwish M, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rivkin W, Schmidt KH. Beneficial Effects of Servant Leadership on Short- and Long-Term Indicators of Employees’ Psychological Health. In: Deml B, Stock P, Bruder R, Schlick CM, eds. Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of GfA 2015. Springer; 2016:71-85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. We Have Already Used Up This Year’s Supply Of Natural Resources. IFLScience. Published August 8, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Reliever Airport Set-Aside Funds Could Be Redirected. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinh W. Elderly Vietnamese’ Perceptions of the Effects of Adult Day Health Care Services on Their Mental and Physical Well-Being. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grazda E, Leland J. Before the Gentry Moved In. New York Times. September 26, 2017:MB8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationVis. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)2405-4690
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles