How to format your references using the Family Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Family Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marty B. Planetary science. The primordial porridge. Science. 2006 May 5;312(5774):706–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marks CO, Muller-Landau HC. Comment on “From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity.” Science. 2007 Jun 8;316(5830):1425; author reply 1425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Riddihough G, Purnell BA, Travis J. Freedom of expression. Introduction to special issue. Science. 2008 Mar 28;319(5871):1781.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Elvin CM, Carr AG, Huson MG, Maxwell JM, Pearson RD, Vuocolo T, et al. Synthesis and properties of crosslinked recombinant pro-resilin. Nature. 2005 Oct 13;437(7061):999–1002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knopf FC. Modeling, Analysis and Optimization of Process and Energy Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Tilley-Lubbs GA, Calva SB, editors. Re-Telling Our Stories: Critical Autoethnographic Narratives. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016. XXIV, 258 p. (Imagination and Praxis, Criticality and Creativity in Education and Educational Research).
A chapter in an edited book
Buckland ST, Rexstad EA, Marques TA, Oedekoven CS. Modelling Detection Functions. In: Rexstad EA, Marques TA, Oedekoven CS, editors. Distance Sampling: Methods and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 53–103. (Methods in Statistical Ecology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Family Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Thousands Of Relics Recovered From Ancient Mexican City [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Internal Revenue Service: Results of Review of IRS Spending for Business Systems Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Aug. Report No.: GAO-01-920.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garlapally V. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Impact on Metamorphosis and Thyroid Development in African Clawed Frogs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J. Devising Real Ethics for Artificial Intelligence. New York Times. 2016 Sep 2;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFamily Medicine
AbbreviationFam. Med.
ISSN (print)0742-3225
ISSN (online)1938-3800
ScopeFamily Practice

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