How to format your references using the Family Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Family Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hassan MHA. Nanotechnology. Small things and big changes in the developing world. Science. 2005 Jul 1;309(5731):65–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu H, Cheng L. Cryo-EM shows the polymerase structures and a nonspooled genome within a dsRNA virus. Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1347–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Babbush R, Love PJ, Aspuru-Guzik A. Adiabatic quantum simulation of quantum chemistry. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 13;4:6603.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Couzin ID, Krause J, Franks NR, Levin SA. Effective leadership and decision-making in animal groups on the move. Nature. 2005 Feb 3;433(7025):513–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casadella V, Liu Z, Uzunidis D. Innovation Capabilities and Economic Development in Open Economies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
McCarty LB. Applied Soil Physical Properties, Drainage, and Irrigation Strategies. Hubbard LR Jr, Quisenberry V, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XX, 314 p. 153 illus., 125 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang Z. Study of System Intuition by Noetic Science Founded by QIAN Xuesen. In: Hu B, Liu J, Chen L, Zhong N, editors. Brain Informatics: International Conference, BI 2011, Lanzhou, China, September 7-9, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 28–28. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Family Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. It’s survival of the most useful when protecting species. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airfield Pavement: Keeping Nation’s Runways in Good Condition Could Require Substantially Higher Spending. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Jul. Report No.: RCED-98-226.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shibata CL. Building positive body image in adolescent girls: An evaluation of a body image prevention program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Banks Scores Six Goals As Syracuse Wins Title. New York Times. 2000 May 30;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFamily Medicine
AbbreviationFam. Med.
ISSN (print)0742-3225
ISSN (online)1938-3800
ScopeFamily Practice

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