How to format your references using the Family Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Family Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burgess D. Taking on that first faculty job. Nature. 2007 Jun 28;447(7148):1142.
A journal article with 2 authors
McInerney JO, Pisani D. Genetics. Paradigm for life. Science. 2007 Nov 30;318(5855):1390–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schröter C, Kosma K, Schultz T. CRASY: mass- or electron-correlated rotational alignment spectroscopy. Science. 2011 Aug 19;333(6045):1011–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Park MS, Ma SB, Lee DJ, Im D, Doo SG, Yamamoto O. A highly reversible lithium metal anode. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 22;4:3815.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ohshima H. Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Adhikari R, Thapa S, editors. Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine II: First International Conference (ICIDN – 2012), Dec. 15-18, 2012, Kathmandu, Nepal. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014. XIV, 99 p. 29 illus. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; vol. 808).
A chapter in an edited book
Rogers Y. Using External Visualizations to Extend and Integrate Learning in Mobile and Classroom Settings. In: Gilbert JK, Reiner M, Nakhleh M, editors. Visualization: Theory and Practice in Science Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 89–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Family Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. “Exercise In A Pill” Makes Mice Run For 70 Percent Longer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Leveraging Best Practices and Reform Initiatives Can Help Agencies Better Manage Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 May. Report No.: GAO-14-568T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grayson N. Development of a preliminary scale of counterproductive experiences in supervision: Attitudes of clinical psychology doctoral students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Estonia: New Prime Minister. New York Times. 2002 Jan 23;A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFamily Medicine
AbbreviationFam. Med.
ISSN (print)0742-3225
ISSN (online)1938-3800
ScopeFamily Practice

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