How to format your references using the Family Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Family Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mullin T. Granular materials. Mixing and de-mixing. Science. 2002 Mar 8;295(5561):1851.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beghein C, Trampert J. Robust normal mode constraints on inner-core anisotropy from model space search. Science. 2003 Jan 24;299(5606):552–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen Y, Knoll AH, Walter MR. Evidence for low sulphate and anoxia in a mid-Proterozoic marine basin. Nature. 2003 Jun 5;423(6940):632–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gasparini F, Caicci F, Rigon F, Zaniolo G, Manni L. Testing an unusual in vivo vessel network model: a method to study angiogenesis in the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 24;4:6460.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evtukh A, Hartnagel H, Yilmazoglu O, Mimura H, Pavlidis D. Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Rodrigues JF, Seregin G, Urbano JM, editors. Trends in Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2005. XIV, 282 p. (Progress in Nonlinear Differential Equations and Their Applications; vol. 61).
A chapter in an edited book
Orlandi P, Leonardi S, Antonia RA. VORTEX STRUCTURES IN A ROUGH-WALL CHANNEL FLOWAND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PASSIVE SCALAR. In: Kida S, editor. IUTAM Symposium on Elementary Vortices and Coherent Structures: Significance in Turbulence Dynamics: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held at Kyoto International Community House, Kyoto, Japan, 26-28 October 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 39–49. (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Family Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti C. Check Out The Ingenious Way This Seal Manages To Avoid Hungry Orcas [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2007 Expenditure Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Feb. Report No.: GAO-07-247.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham SM. Conditions that Prompt the Migrant Worker Population to Access Pre-Hospital Emergency Care in Place of Health Centers in Qatar [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Democrats; Clinton Says He Was Told of Draft Aid. New York Times. 1992 Sep 5;17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFamily Medicine
AbbreviationFam. Med.
ISSN (print)0742-3225
ISSN (online)1938-3800
ScopeFamily Practice

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