How to format your references using the Family Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Family Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harshaw C. ANIMAL COGNITION. Comment on “Number-space mapping in the newborn chick resembles humans’ mental number line.” Science. 2015 Jun 26;348(6242):1438.
A journal article with 2 authors
von Messling V, Cattaneo R. Virology. A henipavirus vaccine in sight. Science. 2012 Aug 10;337(6095):651–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meza LR, Das S, Greer JR. Strong, lightweight, and recoverable three-dimensional ceramic nanolattices. Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1322–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mikołajczyk-Stecyna J, Korcz A, Gabriel M, Pawlaczyk K, Oszkinis G, Słomski R. Risk factors in abdominal aortic aneurysm and in Polish population aortoiliac occlusive disease and differences between them [corrected]. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 18;3:3528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misra DK. Practical Electromagnetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Steele RG, Elkin TD, Roberts MC, editors. Handbook of Evidence-Based Therapies for Children and Adolescents: Bridging Science and Practice. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. X, 586 p. (Issues in Clinical Child Psychology).
A chapter in an edited book
Anubhuti Garg, Mugdha Gupta, Garvit Bansal, Bharavi Mishra, Vikas Bajpai. Do Bad Smells Follow Some Pattern? In: Satapathy SC, Bhatt YC, Joshi A, Mishra DK, editors. Proceedings of the International Congress on Information and Communication Technology: ICICT 2015, Volume 1. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 39–46. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Family Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Potential Life on Red Dwarf Planets In Peril Due To Extreme Space Weather [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares and Service at Buffalo, New York. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Sep. Report No.: T-RCED-99-286.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holler JC. A phenomenological case study of finding meaning through the developmental nature of a doctoral program in organization change [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. The Promoter Is an Indie. New York Times. 2017 Aug 6;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFamily Medicine
AbbreviationFam. Med.
ISSN (print)0742-3225
ISSN (online)1938-3800
ScopeFamily Practice

Other styles