How to format your references using the Family Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Family Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. Financial planning. Nature. 2008 Aug 7;454(7205):680.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coffin JM, Stoye JP. Virology. A new virus for old diseases? Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):530–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bergmann DC, Lukowitz W, Somerville CR. Stomatal development and pattern controlled by a MAPKK kinase. Science. 2004 Jun 4;304(5676):1494–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garabato ACN, Polzin KL, King BA, Heywood KJ, Visbeck M. Widespread intense turbulent mixing in the Southern Ocean. Science. 2004 Jan 9;303(5655):210–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Häussler-Combe U. Computational Methods for Reinforced Concrete Structures. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2014.
An edited book
Nash JF Jr, Rassias MT, editors. Open Problems in Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XIII, 543 p. 88 illus., 17 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Li LY, Wang XM, Mu LX. Incipient Fault Detection for a Hypersonic Scramjet Vehicle. In: Wang J, editor. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Aviation Maintenance and Management-Volume I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 31–8. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Family Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Amateur Astronomers Find Supernova That Exploded 970 Million Years Ago [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ICBM Modernization: Status, Survivable Basing Issues, and Need To Reestablish a National Consensus. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-86-200.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamb BK. A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Emissions at a Roundabout and a Signalized Intersection in a Mid-Sized City [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Maître D’ Says “Buona Sera,” but Back Home, It’s “Buenos Días.” New York Times. 2002 Jul 21;145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFamily Medicine
AbbreviationFam. Med.
ISSN (print)0742-3225
ISSN (online)1938-3800
ScopeFamily Practice

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