How to format your references using the Oncology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szathmáry E: Evolution. To group or not to group? Science 334: 1648–1649, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fehr E and Rockenbach B: Detrimental effects of sanctions on human altruism. Nature 422: 137–140, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim C, Xuong N-H and Taylor SS: Crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic and regulatory (RIalpha) subunits of PKA. Science 307: 690–696, 2005.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Billy J, Josse V, Zuo Z, et al.: Direct observation of Anderson localization of matter waves in a controlled disorder. Nature 453: 891–894, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin CJ: The 10 Principles of Food Industry Sustainability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
Latzer Y and Stein D: Bio-Psycho-Social Contributions to Understanding Eating Disorders. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
King-Lacroix J and Martin A: KEDS: Decentralised Network Security for the Smart Home Environment. In: Smart Grid Security: Second International Workshop, SmartGridSec 2014, Munich, Germany, February 26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Cuellar J (ed.) Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp63–78, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Letters.

Blog post
Hamilton K: Small Tropical Islands Could Become The World’s First 100% Renewable Nations. IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Supplemental Student Loans: Who Are the Largest Lenders? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardison A: Achieving Literacy Excellence through Identifying and Utilizing High Yield Strategies., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S: Moscow: A Boom Town For Shiny New Theaters. New York Times: E3, 2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Letters
AbbreviationOncol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1792-1074
ISSN (online)1792-1082
ScopeCancer Research

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