How to format your references using the Oncology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman S: Twin peaks Rhône-Alpes. Nature 426: 366–367, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richards-Kortum R and Oden M: Engineering. Devices for low-resource health care. Science 342: 1055–1057, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng N, Bu X and Feng P: Synthetic design of crystalline inorganic chalcogenides exhibiting fast-ion conductivity. Nature 426: 428–432, 2003.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Koenigs M, Young L, Adolphs R, Tranel D, Cushman F, Hauser M and Damasio A: Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements. Nature 446: 908–911, 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Castle D, Cline C, Daar AS, Tsamis C and Singer PA: Science, Society, and the Supermarket. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
Shanley TP, Wong HR and Wheeler DS: Cardiovascular Pediatric Critical Illness and Injury. Springer, London, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Bojanov B: Extremal Problems for Polynomials in the Complex Plane. In: Approximation and Computation: In Honor of Gradimir V. Milovanović. Gautschi W, Mastroianni G and Rassias TM (eds.) Springer, New York, NY, pp61–85, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Letters.

Blog post
Hale T: Company That Upped Drug Price By 5,000% Reports $14.6 Million Loss In Three Months. IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Federal Efforts to Ensure Continued Delivery of Key State-Administered Benefits. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gross J: High-performance dram system design constraints and considerations., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J: Loss to Nationals Brings Reminders of Early Season Demons. New York Times: B10, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Letters
AbbreviationOncol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1792-1074
ISSN (online)1792-1082
ScopeCancer Research

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