How to format your references using the Vision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duldig, M. Astronomy. Cosmic rays track the rotation of the Milky Way. Science 2006, 314, 429–430.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hörber, J.K.H.; Miles, M.J. Scanning probe evolution in biology. Science 2003, 302, 1002–1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bates, M.E.; Simmons, J.A.; Zorikov, T.V. Bats use echo harmonic structure to distinguish their targets from background clutter. Science 2011, 333, 627–630.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Büttner, T.; Geier, J.; Frison, G.; Harmer, J.; Calle, C.; Schweiger, A.; Schönberg, H.; Grützmacher, H. A stable aminyl radical metal complex. Science 2005, 307, 235–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer, D.A. Hazardous Materials Characterization; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471793779.
An edited book
Leading Student Assessment; Webber, C.F., Lupart, J.L., Eds.; Studies in Educational Leadership; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; Vol. 15; ISBN 9789400717268.
A chapter in an edited book
Aerts, D.; Sozzo, S.; Tapia, J. A Quantum Model for the Ellsberg and Machina Paradoxes. In Quantum Interaction: 6th International Symposium, QI 2012, Paris, France, June 27-29, 2012, Revised Selected Papers; Busemeyer, J.R., Dubois, F., Lambert-Mogiliansky, A., Melucci, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 48–59 ISBN 9783642356582.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vision.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Telescope Made From Water Allows Astronomers To Look Into The Extreme Energy Universe Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Commercial Maritime Industry: Updated Information on Federal Assessments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chon, J.Y. Coping as a mediator of the relation between teacher perceived stress and teacher-student relationships. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. A Comics Confab That Never Ends. New York Times 2016, F30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVision
AbbreviationVision (Basel)
ISSN (online)2411-5150

Other styles