How to format your references using the Vision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waters, A.P. Parasitology. Guilty until Proven Otherwise. Science 2003, 301, 1487–1488.
A journal article with 2 authors
Argus, J.P.; Bensinger, S.J. Immunology. Fueling Function over Expansion in T Cells. Science 2013, 341, 37–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galbraith, C.G.; Yamada, K.M.; Galbraith, J.A. Polymerizing Actin Fibers Position Integrins Primed to Probe for Adhesion Sites. Science 2007, 315, 992–995.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, X.-Y.; Ko, H.-G.; Chen, T.; Descalzi, G.; Koga, K.; Wang, H.; Kim, S.S.; Shang, Y.; Kwak, C.; Park, S.-W.; et al. Alleviating Neuropathic Pain Hypersensitivity by Inhibiting PKMzeta in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex. Science 2010, 330, 1400–1404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trimble, M.R.; George, M.S. Biological Psychiatry; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2010; ISBN 9780470689394.
An edited book
Brokate, M. Measure and Integral; Kersting, G., Ed.; Compact Textbooks in Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319153643.
A chapter in an edited book
Rehm, G.; Uszkoreit, H. Language Technology Support for English. In The English Language in the Digital Age; Rehm, G., Uszkoreit, H., Eds.; White Paper Series; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 15–32 ISBN 9783642306839.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vision.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Live Webcast of Supernova Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Opportunities Still Exist To Better Use the Mint’s Data Processing Center; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quinn, L. The Poetics of Soul: Mythic Narrative as Creative Elegy. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J.; Robertson, C. New Orleans Looks to Houston, and Sees Itself. New York Times 2017, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVision
AbbreviationVision (Basel)
ISSN (online)2411-5150

Other styles