How to format your references using the Vision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sargis, E.J. Paleontology. Primate Origins Nailed. Science 2002, 298, 1564–1565.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Groot, B.L.; Grubmüller, H. Water Permeation across Biological Membranes: Mechanism and Dynamics of Aquaporin-1 and GlpF. Science 2001, 294, 2353–2357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton, M.J.; Tverdokhlebov, V.P.; Surkov, M.V. Ecosystem Remodelling among Vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Russia. Nature 2004, 432, 97–100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eun, J.K.; Guthrie, K.A.; Zirpoli, G.; Gadi, V.K. In Situ Breast Cancer and Microchimerism. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Du, D.-Z.; Ko, K.-I. Theory of Computational Complexity; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118595091.
An edited book
Victims of International Crimes: An Interdisciplinary Discourse; Bonacker, T., Safferling, C., Eds.; T. M. C. Asser Press: The Hague, The Netherlands, 2013; ISBN 9789067049115.
A chapter in an edited book
Swartjes, I.; Theune, M. A Fabula Model for Emergent Narrative. In Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment: Third International Conference, TIDSE 2006, Darmstadt, Germany, December 4-6, 2006. Proceedings; Göbel, S., Malkewitz, R., Iurgel, I., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 49–60 ISBN 9783540499343.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vision.

Blog post
Taub, B. Scientists Have Watched A Brain Getting Hooked On Sugar In Real Time (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Costly Requirements for Certain Control Towers, Navigation Aids, and Airport Lights; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1974;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglen Bertrando, S.L. Rethinking Workplace Learning in the Digital World: A Case Study of Open Badges. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S.F.; Alter, A. Intrigue Grows Over New Book by Harper Lee. New York Times 2015, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVision
AbbreviationVision (Basel)
ISSN (online)2411-5150

Other styles