How to format your references using the Vision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J.F. Development. There’s Something Curious about Paternal-Age Effects. Science 2003, 301, 606–607.
A journal article with 2 authors
Munshi, N.V.; Olson, E.N. Translational Medicine. Improving Cardiac Rhythm with a Biological Pacemaker. Science 2014, 345, 268–269.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaul, M.; Garden, G.A.; Lipton, S.A. Pathways to Neuronal Injury and Apoptosis in HIV-Associated Dementia. Nature 2001, 410, 988–994.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Höner, O.P.; Wachter, B.; East, M.L.; Streich, W.J.; Wilhelm, K.; Burke, T.; Hofer, H. Female Mate-Choice Drives the Evolution of Male-Biased Dispersal in a Social Mammal. Nature 2007, 448, 798–801.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barrett-Lennard, G.T. The Relationship Inventory; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118789070.
An edited book
Spinal Instability; Manfrè, L., Ed.; New Procedures in Spinal Interventional Neuroradiology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319129006.
A chapter in an edited book
Pawlowski, S.; Crespo, J.; Velizarov, S. Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradient Energy by Reverse Electrodialysis. In Electrokinetics Across Disciplines and Continents: New Strategies for Sustainable Development; Ribeiro, A.B., Mateus, E.P., Couto, N., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 57–80 ISBN 9783319201788.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vision.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Asteroid Mining Company Planetary Resources Launches Its First Prototype Spacecraft Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Staffing, Training, and Funding Issues for FAA’s Major Work Forces; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weber, C. Exercise for Older Adults with Dementia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Petke Departs, Certain He Gave All That He Could. New York Times 2010, SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVision
AbbreviationVision (Basel)
ISSN (online)2411-5150

Other styles