How to format your references using the European Journal of Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Marx, Cell communication: stop the microbial chatter, Nature. 511 (2014) 493–497.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.S. Hulleman, J.M. Harackiewicz, Promoting interest and performance in high school science classes, Science. 326 (2009) 1410–1412.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.J. Depew, T. Lufkin, J.L.R. Rubenstein, Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes, Science. 298 (2002) 381–385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O.M. Auslaender, H. Steinberg, A. Yacoby, Y. Tserkovnyak, B.I. Halperin, K.W. Baldwin, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, Spin-charge separation and localization in one dimension, Science. 308 (2005) 88–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Halstead, Two Oxen Ahead, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
D. Cavallucci, R. de Guio, G. Cascini, eds., Building Innovation Pipelines through Computer-Aided Innovation: 4th IFIP WG 5.4 Working Conference, CAI 2011, Strasbourg, France, June 30 – July 1, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Javed, M. Shah, Tracking in Multiple Cameras with Disjoint Views, in: M. Shah (Ed.), Automated Multi-Camera Surveillance: Algorithms and Practice, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2008: pp. 1–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Radiology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What’s The Most Dangerous Place On Earth?, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Preliminary Observations on Past, Present, and Future, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.D. Prejean, An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in Texas Public Schools: Race, School District Size, Academic Performance, and Policy Influences, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, Feeling Blah? There’s a Book About That, New York Times. (2017) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Radiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0720-048X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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