How to format your references using the European Journal of Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
R.W. Park, Anthropology. Stories of Arctic colonization, Science. 345 (2014) 1004–1005.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Y. Karklin, M.S. Lewicki, Emergence of complex cell properties by learning to generalize in natural scenes, Nature. 457 (2009) 83–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
K. Shinkai, M. Mohrs, R.M. Locksley, Helper T cells regulate type-2 innate immunity in vivo, Nature. 420 (2002) 825–829.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
D.J. Schulze, B. Harte, J.W. Valley, J.M. Brenan, D.M.D.R. Channer, Extreme crustal oxygen isotope signatures preserved in coesite in diamond, Nature. 423 (2003) 68–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
G. Anichini, F. Carraro, P. Geslin, G. Guille-Escuret, Technicity vs Scientificity, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
[1]
R. Chiong, S. Dhakal, eds., Natural Intelligence for Scheduling, Planning and Packing Problems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
B. Acioli-Santos, H.E.E. Vieira, C.E.P. Lima, L.C. Maia, The Molecular Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Essence in Association: A Review of Differentially Expressed Fungal Genes During Symbiosis Formation, in: M. Rai, A. Varma (Eds.), Diversity and Biotechnology of Ectomycorrhizae, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 87–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Radiology.

Blog post
[1]
E. Andrew, Scientists Are On A Mission To Protect Curly Hair From Heat Damage, IFLScience. (2015). https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/scientists-want-protect-curly-hair-heat-damage/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Direct Loan Debate, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
C.N. Bailey, The influence of gardens on resilience in older adults living in a continuing care community, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
B. Brantley, A ‘Torch’ Still Sears, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Radiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0720-048X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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