How to format your references using the European Journal of Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Hayflick, New approaches to old age, Nature. 403 (2000) 365.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.J.L. Rowley, R.A. Alford, Hot bodies protect amphibians against chytrid infection in nature, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Chonan, S. Kato, T. Aoki, Efficient single-mode photon-coupling device utilizing a nanofiber tip, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4785.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.N. Greaves, F. Meneau, O. Majérus, D.G. Jones, J. Taylor, Identifying vibrations that destabilize crystals and characterize the glassy state, Science. 308 (2005) 1299–1302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. El-Haik, D.M. Roy, Service Design for Six Sigma, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
H.F. O’Neil, R.S. Perez, E.L. Baker, eds., Teaching and Measuring Cognitive Readiness, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Sheard, Generic Programming in Ωmega, in: R. Backhouse, J. Gibbons, R. Hinze, J. Jeuring (Eds.), Datatype-Generic Programming: International Spring School, SSDGP 2006, Nottingham, UK, April 24–27, 2006, Revised Lectures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 258–284.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Radiology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Milky Way galaxy has four arms, not two, IFLScience. (2013).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Bankruptcy Reform: Value of Credit Counseling Requirement Is Not Clear, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.C. Lytle, Giving voice to the past: New editions of select repertoire of the 26th Regiment Band, North Carolina troops, C.S.A, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, Rising Saudi Prince, 31, Advances to One Step From the Throne, New York Times. (2017) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Radiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0720-048X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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