How to format your references using the Energy Efficiency citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Efficiency. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muro, M. (2000). MOUNT GRAHAM: Report Finds Squirrels Survived 3 Telescopes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5477), 228a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chyba, C. F., & Hand, K. P. (2001). Planetary science. Life without photosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5524), 2026–2027.
A journal article with 3 authors
Belmonte, A., Di Clemente, R., & Buldyrev, S. V. (2014). The Italian primary school-size distribution and the city-size: a complex nexus. Scientific reports, 4, 5301.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Turner, A., Beales, J., Faure, S., Dunford, R. P., & Laurie, D. A. (2005). The pseudo-response regulator Ppd-H1 provides adaptation to photoperiod in barley. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5750), 1031–1034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yamaguchi, R., & Fujita, K.-I. (2014). Ligand Platforms in Homogenous Catalytic Reactions with Metals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alpern, S., Fokkink, R., Gąsieniec, L., Lindelauf, R., & Subrahmanian, V. S. (Eds.). (2013). Search Theory: A Game Theoretic Perspective. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Holbrow, C. H., Lloyd, J. N., Amato, J. C., Galvez, E., & Parks, M. E. (2010). Hard-Sphere Atoms. In J. N. Lloyd, J. C. Amato, E. Galvez, & M. E. Parks (Eds.), Modern Introductory Physics (pp. 109–149). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Efficiency.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, August 11). A Blob And A Bubble Tell Us The History Of A Supermassive Black Hole. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Research and Development Funding: Reported Gap Between Data From Federal Agencies and Their R&D Performers Results From Noncomparable Data (No. GAO-01-512R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, R. (2010). The California State University education doctorate: Public policy for the public good (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, February 10). Woman Who Is Miami Prosecutor Joins Clinton List for Justice Dept. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muro 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chyba and Hand 2001; Muro 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chyba and Hand 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Turner et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Efficiency
ISSN (print)1570-646X
ISSN (online)1570-6478
ScopeGeneral Energy

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