How to format your references using the Energy Efficiency citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Efficiency. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson, D. (2001). Weaving a social web. Nature, 414(6864), 587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stolow, A., & Jonas, D. M. (2004). Chemistry. Multidimensional snapshots of chemical dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5690), 1575–1577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rolland-Lagan, A.-G., Bangham, J. A., & Coen, E. (2003). Growth dynamics underlying petal shape and asymmetry. Nature, 422(6928), 161–163.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pauly, D., Alder, J., Bennett, E., Christensen, V., Tyedmers, P., & Watson, R. (2003). The future for fisheries. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5649), 1359–1361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Klerk, A. (2011). Fischer-Tropsch Refining. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Heredia, R. R., Altarriba, J., & Cieślicka, A. B. (Eds.). (2016). Methods in Bilingual Reading Comprehension Research (1st ed. 2016., Vol. 1). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Benz, A., & Salfner, F. (2013). Discourse Structuring Questions and Scalar Implicatures. In G. Bezhanishvili, S. Löbner, V. Marra, & F. Richter (Eds.), Logic, Language, and Computation: 9th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2011, Kutaisi, Georgia, September 26-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 35–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Efficiency.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, June 23). Crabs are Gobbling Up Our Mangrove Restoration Efforts. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Telecommunications: FCC Has Made Some Progress in the Management of Its Enforcement Program but Faces Limitations, and Additional Actions Are Needed (No. GAO-08-125). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chan, A. B. (2008). Beyond dynamic textures: A family of stochastic dynamical models for video with applications to computer vision (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hill, J., & Kramer, A. E. (2017, March 8). No Love for Valentine’s: In Russia, Florists Bank on a Day for Women. New York Times, p. B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson 2001; Stolow and Jonas 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stolow and Jonas 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Pauly et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Efficiency
ISSN (print)1570-646X
ISSN (online)1570-6478
ScopeGeneral Energy

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