How to format your references using the Energy Efficiency citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Efficiency. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin, E. (2015). Technology: Barriers to misuse. Nature, 522(7557), S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoveyda, A. H., & Zhugralin, A. R. (2007). The remarkable metal-catalysed olefin metathesis reaction. Nature, 450(7167), 243–251.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peters, S. E., Kelly, D. C., & Fraass, A. J. (2013). Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera. Nature, 493(7432), 398–401.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, R., Wei, X., Hu, J., & Luo, X. (2014). Local heating realization by reverse thermal cloak. Scientific reports, 4, 3600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Radoine, H. (2017). Architecture in Context. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gruber, P., Bruckner, D., Hellmich, C., Schmiedmayer, H.-B., Stachelberger, H., & Gebeshuber, I. C. (Eds.). (2011). Biomimetics -- Materials, Structures and Processes: Examples, Ideas and Case Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dunn, D. H., Johnson, E. M., Kemp, K., Ganz, R., Leon, S., & Banerji, N. (2014). Robotic Assisted Operations for Gastroesophageal Reflux. In K. C. Kim (Ed.), Robotics in General Surgery (pp. 33–54). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Efficiency.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, May 23). Chelyabinsk Meteorite Was The Result of Asteroid Collision. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Defaulted Student Loans: Preliminary Analysis of Student Loan Borrowers and Defaulters (No. HRD-88-112BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jorge, M. H. (2004). Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, November 7). Job Bias Case Turns on Filing Right Form. New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolgin 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dolgin 2015; Hoveyda and Zhugralin 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoveyda and Zhugralin 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Efficiency
ISSN (print)1570-646X
ISSN (online)1570-6478
ScopeGeneral Energy

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