How to format your references using the Energy Efficiency citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Efficiency. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moritz, M. A. (2012). Wildfires ignite debate on global warming. Nature, 487(7407), 273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rick, T. C., & Erlandson, J. M. (2009). Anthropology. Coastal exploitation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5943), 952–953.
A journal article with 3 authors
LeCun, Y., Bengio, Y., & Hinton, G. (2015). Deep learning. Nature, 521(7553), 436–444.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Loppin, B., Bonnefoy, E., Anselme, C., Laurençon, A., Karr, T. L., & Couble, P. (2005). The histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA is essential for chromatin assembly in the male pronucleus. Nature, 437(7063), 1386–1390.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark, M. (2006). Understanding Diabetes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ho, A. C., & Regillo, C. D. (Eds.). (2011). Age-related Macular Degeneration Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, H., & Qian, D. (2015). A Terminal-Sliding-Mode-Based Frequency Regulation. In X. Hu, Y. Xia, Y. Zhang, & D. Zhao (Eds.), Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2015: 12th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2015, Jeju, South Korea, October 15-18, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 36–42). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Efficiency.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 27). New Method Could Help Us Find Life On Other Worlds. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). NASA Aeronautics: Impact of Technology Transfer Activities Is Uncertain (No. NSIAD-93-137). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoover, J. H. (2009). The Arizona water-energy nexus: Electricity for water and wastewater services (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ADAM LIPTAK; Janet Roberts contributed reporting for this series. She was assisted by Linda Amster, Styczynski, J., Anderson, D., Begg, J., Delaquérière, A., Jamison, S., et al. (2005, October 3). Locked Away Forever After Crimes as Teenagers. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moritz 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Moritz 2012; Rick and Erlandson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rick and Erlandson 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Loppin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Efficiency
ISSN (print)1570-646X
ISSN (online)1570-6478
ScopeGeneral Energy

Other styles