How to format your references using the Energy Efficiency citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Efficiency. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Venema, L. (2011). Silicon electronics and beyond. Nature, 479(7373), 309.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hosten, O., & Kwiat, P. (2008). Observation of the spin hall effect of light via weak measurements. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5864), 787–790.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, D. L., Chan, B., & Bush, J. W. M. (2003). The hydrodynamics of water strider locomotion. Nature, 424(6949), 663–666.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bates, M., Huang, B., Dempsey, G. T., & Zhuang, X. (2007). Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5845), 1749–1753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jain, R. K., Triandis, H. C., & Weick, C. W. (2010). Managing Research, Development, and Innovation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gürlebeck, K. (2016). Application of Holomorphic Functions in Two and Higher Dimensions. (K. Habetha & W. Sprößig, Eds.). Basel: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Taylor, M. (2005). Embedded Local Growth: A Theory Taken too Far? In R. A. Boschma & R. C. Kloosterman (Eds.), Learning from Clusters: A Critical Assessment from an Economic-Geographical Perspective (pp. 69–88). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Efficiency.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, September 18). Apes Rewatching Movies Know When Exciting Scenes Are Coming Up. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Transportation Security Information Sharing: Results of GAO’s Survey of Stakeholder Satisfaction with TSA Products and Mechanisms (GAO-12-67SP, November 2011), an E-supplement to GAO-12-44 (No. GAO-12-67SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guedez, A. (2017). Developing Correlations for Velocity Models in Vertical Transverse Isotropic Media: Bakken Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, May 16). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Rebels Avenge A Leader’s Death. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Venema 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hosten and Kwiat 2008; Venema 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hosten and Kwiat 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bates et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Efficiency
ISSN (print)1570-646X
ISSN (online)1570-6478
ScopeGeneral Energy

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