How to format your references using the Energy Efficiency citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Efficiency. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van der Hilst, R. D. (2004). Geophysics. Changing views on Earth’s deep mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5697), 817–818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rampino, M. R., & Caldeira, K. (2011). Comment on “Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6056), 594; author reply 594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hilgenkamp, H., Moshchalkov, V. V., & Kes, P. (2003). Physics. Flux quanta on the move. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5648), 1159–1160.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schulte-Pelkum, V., Monsalve, G., Sheehan, A., Pandey, M. R., Sapkota, S., Bilham, R., & Wu, F. (2005). Imaging the Indian subcontinent beneath the Himalaya. Nature, 435(7046), 1222–1225.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). (2011). Supplemental Proceedings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
de Graaf, C. (2016). Magnetic Interactions in Molecules and Solids. (R. Broer, Ed.) (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Davenport, A. (2016). “Beauty Sleeping in the Lap of Horror”: Landscape Aesthetics and Gothic Pleasures, from The Castle of Otranto to Video Games. In S. R. Yang & K. Healey (Eds.), Gothic Landscapes: Changing Eras, Changing Cultures, Changing Anxieties (pp. 71–103). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Efficiency.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, August 19). Even Thermodynamics Gets Weird At An Atomic Level. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Motor Carrier Safety: A Statistical Approach Will Better Identify Commercial Carriers That Pose High Crash Risks Than Does the Current Federal Approach (No. GAO-07-585). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson, A. C. (2017). A Geophysical and Geological Characterization of the Bonanza 3D Survey, Claiborne Group, Saint Landry and Evangeline Parishes, Louisiana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Stellin, S. (2013, September 27). Do You Have a Doctor’s Note? New York Times, p. RE1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van der Hilst 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Rampino and Caldeira 2011; van der Hilst 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rampino and Caldeira 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Schulte-Pelkum et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Efficiency
ISSN (print)1570-646X
ISSN (online)1570-6478
ScopeGeneral Energy

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