How to format your references using the Energy Efficiency citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Efficiency. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christian, C. E. (2001). Consequences of a biological invasion reveal the importance of mutualism for plant communities. Nature, 413(6856), 635–639.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shelke, S. A., & Piccirilli, J. A. (2014). Origins of life: RNA made in its own mirror image. Nature, 515(7527), 347–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takano, A., Endo, T., & Yoshihisa, T. (2005). tRNA actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytosol in yeast. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 140–142.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Smakowska-Luzan, E., Mott, G. A., Parys, K., Stegmann, M., Howton, T. C., Layeghifard, M., et al. (2018). An extracellular network of Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases. Nature, 553(7688), 342–346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Souza de Cursi, E. (2015). Variational Methods for Engineers with Matlab®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Benthem, J. van, Heinzmann, G., Rebuschi, M., & Visser, H. (Eds.). (2006). The Age of Alternative Logics: Assessing Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics Today. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Apsel, A., Wang, X., & Dokania, R. (2014). Pulse Coupled Oscillator Networks. In X. Wang & R. Dokania (Eds.), Design of Ultra-Low Power Impulse Radios (pp. 77–93). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Efficiency.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, July 15). Marijuana Abuse Blunts the Brain’s Response to Dopamine. IFLScience. IFLScience.’s-response-dopamine/. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Transportation Infrastructure: Department of Transportation Highway and Mass Transit Program Reauthorization Proposals (No. T-RCED-91-26). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fleming, T. C. (2015). The Academic Identity Experience of Liberal Arts Faculty in the Age of New Managerialism (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (1975, May 11). A Month With Mom In Eire; A Month With Mom in Ireland. New York Times, p. Travel And ResortsXX1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Christian 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Christian 2001; Shelke and Piccirilli 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shelke and Piccirilli 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Smakowska-Luzan et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Efficiency
ISSN (print)1570-646X
ISSN (online)1570-6478
ScopeGeneral Energy

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