How to format your references using the Virus Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virus Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helfand, S.L., 2002. Neurobiology. Chaperones take flight. Science 295, 809–810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Szathmáry, E., Hammerstein, P., 2004. Obituary: John Maynard Smith (1920-2004). Nature 429, 258–259.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saran, R., Stolojan, V., Curry, R.J., 2014. Ultrahigh performance C60 nanorod large area flexible photoconductor devices via ultralow organic and inorganic photodoping. Sci. Rep. 4, 5041.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schaefer, C.B., Ooi, S.K.T., Bestor, T.H., Bourc’his, D., 2007. Epigenetic decisions in mammalian germ cells. Science 316, 398–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yeakley, C.L., Fiebrich, J.D., 2015. Collaborative Process Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gutwirth, S., Leenes, R., de Hert, P. (Eds.), 2015. Reforming European Data Protection Law, Law, Governance and Technology Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, H., Ren, Y., 2012. Supply Chain Coordination under Buyback Contract with Multiple Newsvendors, in: Qian, Z., Cao, L., Su, W., Wang, T., Yang, H. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering: Volume 3, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virus Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Elon Musk’s High-Speed Hyperloop Train Makes More Sense For Mars Than California [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Performance Measurement: Efforts to Evaluate the Advanced Technology Program (No. RCED-95-68). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Torres, N., 2012. Do family nurse practitioner students understand the physiological changes associated with andropause in men over forty? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2017. Schwarzenegger Won’t Return to ‘Celebrity Apprentice.’ New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Helfand, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Helfand, 2002; Szathmáry and Hammerstein, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Szathmáry and Hammerstein, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaefer et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirus Research
AbbreviationVirus Res.
ISSN (print)0168-1702
ScopeCancer Research
Infectious Diseases

Other styles