How to format your references using the Virus Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virus Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rohn, J., 2011. Give postdocs a career, not empty promises. Nature 471, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yadlapalli, S., Yamashita, Y.M., 2013. Chromosome-specific nonrandom sister chromatid segregation during stem-cell division. Nature 498, 251–254.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ribeiro, B., Perra, N., Baronchelli, A., 2013. Quantifying the effect of temporal resolution on time-varying networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 3006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Friml, J., Wiśniewska, J., Benková, E., Mendgen, K., Palme, K., 2002. Lateral relocation of auxin efflux regulator PIN3 mediates tropism in Arabidopsis. Nature 415, 806–809.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kompare, D., 2010. CSI. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Caires, L., Vasconcelos, V.T. (Eds.), 2007. CONCUR 2007 – Concurrency Theory: 18th International Conference, CONCUR 2007, Lisbon, Portugal, September 3-8, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Armitage, J., 2006. Bacterial Behavior, in: Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., Stackebrandt, E. (Eds.), The Prokaryotes: Volume 2: Ecophysiology and Biochemistry. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 102–139.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virus Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. The World’s Only Sample Of Metallic Hydrogen Just Vanished [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Information Technology: OMB and Department of Homeland Security Investment Reviews (No. GAO-04-323). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boerger, E.M., 2014. Natural regeneration dynamics of red oak seedlings in Mississippi bottomland forests (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2000. Powell Leads Syracuse; Princeton Survives. New York Times 88.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rohn, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Rohn, 2011; Yadlapalli and Yamashita, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yadlapalli and Yamashita, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Friml et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirus Research
AbbreviationVirus Res.
ISSN (print)0168-1702
ScopeCancer Research
Infectious Diseases

Other styles