How to format your references using the Virus Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virus Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmeliet, P., 2001. Biomedicine. Clotting factors build blood vessels. Science 293, 1602–1604.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGuire, A.L., Gibbs, R.A., 2006. Genetics. No longer de-identified. Science 312, 370–371.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alby, K., Schaefer, D., Bennett, R.J., 2009. Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Nature 460, 890–893.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schall, P., Cohen, I., Weitz, D.A., Spaepen, F., 2004. Visualization of dislocation dynamics in colloidal crystals. Science 305, 1944–1948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schiek, B., Rolfes, I., Siweris, H.-J., 2005. Noise in High-Frequency Circuits and Oscillators. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kim, M., Diong, C.H. (Eds.), 2012. Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Dehmel, S., Koehler, S.D., Shore, S.E., 2012. Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus: Somatosensory–Auditory Interactions in Tinnitus, in: Eggermont, J.J., Zeng, F.-G., Popper, A.N., Fay, R.R. (Eds.), Tinnitus, Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 97–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virus Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Parents’ Views on Vaccines are Changing [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Transportation Infrastructure: Estimated Funding Under the Transportation Empowerment Act (No. RCED-97-73R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts, E.M., 2006. Whose Books Get Published?: Individual Agency and the Business of Children’s Publishing (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2017. A Contender Reaches a New High. New York Times SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carmeliet, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carmeliet, 2001; McGuire and Gibbs, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGuire and Gibbs, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Schall et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirus Research
AbbreviationVirus Res.
ISSN (print)0168-1702
ScopeCancer Research
Infectious Diseases

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