How to format your references using the Virus Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virus Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butts, C.T., 2009. Revisiting the foundations of network analysis. Science 325, 414–416.
A journal article with 2 authors
Paul, S.M., Beitel, G.J., 2003. Developmental biology. Tubulogenesis CLICs into place. Science 302, 2077–2078.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Y., Yang, Y., Chen, Z., 2014. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching. Sci. Rep. 4, 4332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Skewgar, E., Boersma, P.D., Harris, G., Caille, G., 2007. Sustainability. Anchovy fishery threat to Patagonian ecosystem. Science 315, 45.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stein, R.L., 2011. Kinetics of Enzyme Action. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kudo, T., 2016. Practical Pharmacology for Alzheimer’s Disease, 1st ed. 2016. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Vassev, E., Hinchey, M., 2014. Summary and Future Work, in: Hinchey, M. (Ed.), Autonomy Requirements Engineering for Space Missions, NASA Monographs in Systems and Software Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 185–187.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virus Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Specialized Eyeglasses Make Cancer Glow Blue for Surgeons [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ March 7, 2000, Expenditure Plan (No. AIMD-00-175). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fengler, K., 2017. Everyday Aesthetics and the Environmental Significance of Everyday Aesthetics: A High School Art Unit of Instruction Promoting Positive Attitudinal Changes towards the Environment (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. Theater; The Last Days To Catch a Comet. New York Times AR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butts, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Butts, 2009; Paul and Beitel, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Paul and Beitel, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Skewgar et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirus Research
AbbreviationVirus Res.
ISSN (print)0168-1702
ScopeCancer Research
Infectious Diseases

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