How to format your references using the Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brodholt JP. Pressure-induced changes in the compression mechanism of aluminous perovskite in the Earth’s mantle. Nature (2000) 407:620–622.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tierney JE, deMenocal PB. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate since the Last Glacial Maximum. Science (2013) 342:843–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gélinas Y, Baldock JA, Hedges JI. Organic carbon composition of marine sediments: effect of oxygen exposure on oil generation potential. Science (2001) 294:145–148.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang L, Zhang Y, Zou J, Siemann E. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter retarded by invasive Solidago canadensis in mixtures: an antagonistic non-additive effect. Sci Rep (2014) 4:5488.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ballast DK. Interior Detailing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2010).
An edited book
Müller JP, Weyrich M, Bazzan ALC eds. Multiagent System Technologies: 12th German Conference, MATES 2014, Stuttgart, Germany, September 23-25, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing (2014). X, 284 p. 86 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Rohan JF, Thompson D. “Frontiers of Cu Electrodeposition and Electroless Plating for On-chip Interconnects.,” In: Kondo K, Akolkar RN, Barkey DP, Yokoi M, editors. Copper Electrodeposition for Nanofabrication of Electronics Devices. Nanostructure Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer (2014). p. 99–113

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Dark Side Of Coffee: An Unequal Social And Environmental Exchange. IFLScience (2015) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. General Accounting Office Reviews of Federal Environmental Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1976).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Myers RE. Moderating the effectiveness of messages to promote physical activity in type 2 diabetes. [Doctoral dissertation]. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo M, Fink S, Risen J. U.S. Torture Leaves a Legacy of Detainees With Damaged Minds. New York Times (2016)A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics
AbbreviationFront. Appl. Math. Stat.
ISSN (online)2297-4687

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