How to format your references using the Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Clearing your own path. Nature (2002) 420:3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Newman DK, Kolter R. A role for excreted quinones in extracellular electron transfer. Nature (2000) 405:94–97.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dwyer CA, Stevenson DJ, Nimmo F. A long-lived lunar dynamo driven by continuous mechanical stirring. Nature (2011) 479:212–214.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yuan Z, Kardynal BE, Stevenson RM, Shields AJ, Lobo CJ, Cooper K, Beattie NS, Ritchie DA, Pepper M. Electrically driven single-photon source. Science (2002) 295:102–105.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin DA. Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2006).
An edited book
Leemans R ed. Ecological Systems: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer (2013). VI, 310 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Takazawa K, Inoue J, Mitsuishi K. “Miniaturized Photonic Circuit Components Constructed from Organic Dye Nanofiber Waveguides.,” In: Zhao YS, editor. Organic Nanophotonics: Fundamentals and Applications. Nano-Optics and Nanophotonics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2015). p. 119–139

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics.

Blog post
Davis J. Virus Found To Make Plants Smell More Attractive To Foraging Bees. IFLScience (2016) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Better Management and More Resources Needed To Strengthen Federal Efforts To Improve Pregnancy Outcome. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1980).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haradon CM. The ecological context of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in Africa. [Doctoral dissertation]. Washington, DC: George Washington University (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith M, Kovaleski SF. For Officers After a Shooting, Unseen ‘Grieving.’ New York Times (2017)A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics
AbbreviationFront. Appl. Math. Stat.
ISSN (online)2297-4687

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