How to format your references using the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kidd T. Neuroscience. Crossing the line. Science. 2009;324(5929):893-894.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reddy MM, Quinton PM. Control of dynamic CFTR selectivity by glutamate and ATP in epithelial cells. Nature. 2003;423(6941):756-760.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miles MA, Yeo M, Mauricio IL. Genetics. Leishmania exploit sex. Science. 2009;324(5924):187-189.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Klie RF, Buban JP, Varela M, et al. Enhanced current transport at grain boundaries in high-T(c) superconductors. Nature. 2005;435(7041):475-478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson JB. Bandwidth Efficient Coding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Amin Z, Tobis JM, Sievert H, Carroll JD, eds. Patent Foramen Ovale. Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Tehrani MA, Akbari A, Majumder M. Polylactic Acid (PLA) Layered Silicate Nanocomposites. In: Pandey JK, Reddy KR, Mohanty AK, Misra M, eds. Handbook of Polymernanocomposites. Processing, Performance and Application: Volume A: Layered Silicates. Springer; 2014:53-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Want To Swab Surfers’ Butts To Assess Antibiotic Resistance Risk. IFLScience. Published June 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Issues Concerning the National Materials Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980, Public Law 96-479. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boysen J. The ESCRT Machinery, Required for Endosomal Trafficking, Is a PH-Signaling Platform. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russian Orthodox Church Adds Influential Voice to Calls for Election Reform. New York Times. December 12, 2011:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Pharm. Assoc. (2003)
ISSN (print)1544-3191
ScopePharmacology (nursing)

Other styles