How to format your references using the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hormoz S. Amino acid composition of proteins reduces deleterious impact of mutations. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2919.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Andrew P, Barnes WL. Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons. Science. 2004;306(5698):1002-1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tao C, Cullen WG, Williams ED. Visualizing the electron scattering force in nanostructures. Science. 2010;328(5979):736-740.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
de Fockert JW, Rees G, Frith CD, Lavie N. The role of working memory in visual selective attention. Science. 2001;291(5509):1803-1806.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Pandey JN. The Hilbert Transform of Schwartz Distributions and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1995.
An edited book
1.
Yen J-Y. Local Times and Excursion Theory for Brownian Motion: A Tale of Wiener and Itô Measures. Vol 2088. (Yor M, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Wołk K, Marasek K. Tuned and GPU-Accelerated Parallel Data Mining from Comparable Corpora. In: Král P, Matoušek V, eds. Text, Speech, and Dialogue: 18th International Conference, TSD 2015, Pilsen,Czech Republic, September 14-17, 2015, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:32-40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. The Science Of Why Bacon Smells So Damn Good. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Earth Observing System: NASA’s EOSDIS Development Approach Is Risky. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Boyer GC. Best Practices for Student Success on the ACT. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico’s Troubled Finances Add to Vulnerability During Hurricane. New York Times. September 7, 2017:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Pharm. Assoc. (2003)
ISSN (print)1544-3191
ScopePharmacology (nursing)
Pharmacology
Pharmacy

Other styles