How to format your references using the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Rak J. Cancer: Organ-seeking vesicles. Nature. 2015;527(7578):312-314.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Schafer RJ, Moore T. Selective attention from voluntary control of neurons in prefrontal cortex. Science. 2011;332(6037):1568-1571.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Luo J, Zhu J, Ye H. Comment on “Tubular graphite cones.” Science. 2004;303(5659):766; author reply 766.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Higgins LJ, Yan F, Liu P, Liu H-W, Drennan CL. Structural insight into antibiotic fosfomycin biosynthesis by a mononuclear iron enzyme. Nature. 2005;437(7060):838-844.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Stanoyevitch A. Introduction to Numerical Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations Using MATLAB®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1.
Bramer M, Petridis M, Hopgood A, eds. Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXVII: Incorporating Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XVIII Proceedings of AI-2010, The Thirtieth SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Maxwell I, Pigram D. Gaudi’s Puffy Jacket: A Method for the Implementation of Fabric Slump Casting in the Construction of Thin-Wall Funicular Vault Structures. In: Block P, Knippers J, Mitra NJ, Wang W, eds. Advances in Architectural Geometry 2014. Springer International Publishing; 2015:61-77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. First Sample Of Ancient DNA Extracted From An Extinct Tropical Creature. IFLScience. Published February 20, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/first-sample-of-ancient-dna-extracted-from-an-extinct-tropical-creature/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Campaign Finance Reform: Additional Information Related to Program Goals in Two States Offering Full Public Funding for Political Candidates (GAO-10-391SP), an E-Supplement to GAO-10-390. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gardina VJ. Analysis of LiDAR data for fluvial geomorphic change detection at a small Maryland stream. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gorman J. Size Matters: Secrets of the Orchid Mantis. New York Times. December 5, 2016:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Pharm. Assoc. (2003)
ISSN (print)1544-3191
ScopePharmacology (nursing)
Pharmacology
Pharmacy

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