How to format your references using the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rustichini A. Neuroscience. Emotion and reason in making decisions. Science. 2005;310(5754):1624-1625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harrisingh MC, Nitabach MN. Circadian rhythms. Integrating circadian timekeeping with cellular physiology. Science. 2008;320(5878):879-880.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tellis JC, Primer DN, Molander GA. Dual catalysis. Single-electron transmetalation in organoboron cross-coupling by photoredox/nickel dual catalysis. Science. 2014;345(6195):433-436.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Crawford JM, Korman TP, Labonte JW, et al. Structural basis for biosynthetic programming of fungal aromatic polyketide cyclization. Nature. 2009;461(7267):1139-1143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anson EM. Alexander’s Heirs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Havelund K, Núñez M, Roşu G, Wolff B, eds. Formal Approaches to Software Testing and Runtime Verification: First Combined International Workshops, FATES 2006 and RV 2006, Seattle, WA, USA, August 15-16, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 4262. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Yaduvanshi RS, Parthasarathy H. Mathematical Analysis of Transcendental Equation in Rectangular DRA. In: Parthasarathy H, ed. Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antennas: Theory and Design. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016:57-102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Therapy Dogs Are Helping Kids With Cancer. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Vouchers: Characteristics of Privately Funded Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Genc A. Phase Stability in Metallic Multilayers. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davis JH, Rappeport A, Kelly K, Abrams R. White House’s Tax Plan Puts Business at the Fore. New York Times. April 26, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Pharm. Assoc. (2003)
ISSN (print)1544-3191
ScopePharmacology (nursing)

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