How to format your references using the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vijayan M. Obituary. G.N. Ramachandran (1922-2001). Nature. 2001;411(6837):544.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kazmierczak J, Kremer B. Palaeontology: thermal alteration of the Earth’s oldest fossils. Nature. 2002;420(6915):477-478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waghmare PR, Gunda NSK, Mitra SK. Under-water superoleophobicity of fish scales. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7454.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jin C, Zhang J, Li X, Yang X, Li J, Liu J. Injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics at the target biological tissues. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schlechty PC. Leading for Learning. Jossey-Bass; 2009.
An edited book
Judd CM. Beginning Groovy and Grails: From Novice to Professional. (Nusairat JF, Shingler J, eds.). Apress; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Golden RE, Collins CB, Cunningham SD, Newman EN, Card JJ. Overview of Structural Interventions to Decrease Commercial Sex Risk. In: Collins CB, Cunningham SD, Newman EN, Card JJ, eds. Best Evidence Structural Interventions for HIV Prevention. Springer; 2013:203-284.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bats Upside Down Look Like Breakdancers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Denial of Protest Involving Solicitation’s Evaluation Standard. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown MH. An Examination of Executive Function, Stress, and Adolescent Attachment to Caregivers in a Social Neuroscience Model Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. The Storefront Psychic: A Peek Inside. New York Times. May 14, 1995:131.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Pharm. Assoc. (2003)
ISSN (print)1544-3191
ScopePharmacology (nursing)

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