How to format your references using the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bornholdt S. Systems biology. Less is more in modeling large genetic networks. Science. 2005;310(5747):449-451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Changeux JP, Edelstein SJ. Allosteric mechanisms of signal transduction. Science. 2005;308(5727):1424-1428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sánchez-Villagra MR, Aguilera O, Horovitz I. The anatomy of the world’s largest extinct rodent. Science. 2003;301(5640):1708-1710.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bamber JL, Riva REM, Vermeersen BLA, LeBrocq AM. Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science. 2009;324(5929):901-903.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli RJ, Milosevic DZ. Project Management ToolBox. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Sun X, Liu A, Chao HC, Bertino E, eds. Cloud Computing and Security: Second International Conference, ICCCS 2016, Nanjing, China, July 29-31, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Vol 10040. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kussul E, Baidyk T, Wunsch DC. Associative-Projective Neural Networks (APNNs). In: Baidyk T, Wunsch DC, eds. Neural Networks and Micromechanics. Springer; 2010:75-104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Net-Casting Spider Plunges Web On Top Of Prey. IFLScience. Published September 25, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. IT Supply Chain: National Security-Related Agencies Need to Better Address Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holbert M. Knowledge Is Power (KIP): Kinship Caregiver Support Group Program Curriculum. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Next Chicago School Crisis: Pension Fund. New York Times. September 19, 2012:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Pharm. Assoc. (2003)
ISSN (print)1544-3191
ScopePharmacology (nursing)

Other styles