How to format your references using the Virus Genes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virus Genes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. D. Carucci, Nature 430, 944 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. M. Krupovic and D. H. Bamford, Science 333, 45 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. R. U. Ibarra, J. S. Edwards, and B. O. Palsson, Nature 420, 186 (2002).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. A. Chow, D. Toomre, W. Garrett, and I. Mellman, Nature 418, 988 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. F. A. Manuele, On the Practice of Safety (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005).
An edited book
1. T. Aura, K. Järvinen, and K. Nyberg, editors , Information Security Technology for Applications: 15th Nordic Conference on Secure IT Systems, NordSec 2010, Espoo, Finland, October 27-29, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012).
A chapter in an edited book
1. M. Van Biesbrouck, L. Eeckhout, and B. Calder, in High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: First International Conference, HiPEAC 2005, Barcelona, Spain, November 17-18, 2005. Proceedings, edited by T. Conte, N. Navarro, W.-M. W. Hwu, M. Valero, and T. Ungerer (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virus Genes.

Blog post
1. T. Hale, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: FCC Has Reformed the High-Cost Program, but Oversight and Management Could Be Improved (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. S. J. Barbeau, A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. B. Kenigsberg, New York Times C7 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirus Genes
AbbreviationVirus Genes
ISSN (print)0920-8569
ISSN (online)1572-994X
Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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