How to format your references using the Ecosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons, N. B. 2005. Evolution. An Eocene big bang for bats. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307:527–528.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin, S.-C., and P. E. van Keken. 2005. Multiple volcanic episodes of flood basalts caused by thermochemical mantle plumes. Nature 436:250–252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Langmore, N. E., S. Hunt, and R. M. Kilner. 2003. Escalation of a coevolutionary arms race through host rejection of brood parasitic young. Nature 422:157–160.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, J., S. H. J. Brown, S. von Daake, and S. S. Taylor. 2007. PKA type IIalpha holoenzyme reveals a combinatorial strategy for isoform diversity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318:274–279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaisler, S. H. 2005. Software Paradigms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tsoukas, C., editor. 2006. Lymphocyte Signal Transduction. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Pfaff, C. C., and H. Hasan. 2007. Can Knowledge Management be Open Source? Pages 59–70 in J. Feller, B. Fitzgerald, W. Scacchi, and A. Sillitti, editors. Open Source Development, Adoption and Innovation: IFIP Working Group 2.13 on Open Source Software, June 11–14, 2007, Limerick, Ireland. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosphere.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016, October 3. Marine Parks And Fishery Management: What’s The Best Way To Protect Fish? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Training Procurement: Weaknesses Identified in NTSB Procurement Practices. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bissell, G. H. 2011. Working in the transference as a multicultural intervention. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. 2017, June 20. When the Job Is a Never-Ending Signal Malfunction. New York Times:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simmons 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Simmons 2005, Lin and van Keken 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lin and van Keken 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosphere
ISSN (online)2150-8925

Other styles