How to format your references using the Ecosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2004. Bricks & mortar: Lancaster Environment Centre. Nature 427:270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arokiaraj, M. C., and I. F. Palacios. 2014. Finite element modeling of a novel self-expanding endovascular stent method in treatment of aortic aneurysms. Scientific reports 4:3630.
A journal article with 3 authors
Belmonte, A., R. Di Clemente, and S. V. Buldyrev. 2014. The Italian primary school-size distribution and the city-size: a complex nexus. Scientific reports 4:5301.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wallace, R. J., J. A. Rooke, C.-A. Duthie, J. J. Hyslop, D. W. Ross, N. McKain, S. M. de Souza, T. J. Snelling, A. Waterhouse, and R. Roehe. 2014. Archaeal abundance in post-mortem ruminal digesta may help predict methane emissions from beef cattle. Scientific reports 4:5892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous, A. 2012. Fracture Mechanics 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Kim, H. K., S.-I. Ao, and B. B. Rieger, editors. 2013. IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies: Special Edition of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2011. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Becker, T. 2009. Semantic Information Processing for Multi-party Interaction. Pages 14–14 in V. Matoušek and P. Mautner, editors. Text, Speech and Dialogue: 12th International Conference, TSD 2009, Pilsen, Czech Republic, September 13-17, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosphere.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016, September 5. World’s Largest Primate Now Considered “Critically Endangered.” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Federal Highway Funding by Program and Type of Roadway, With Related Safety Data. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saguilig, L. G. 2017. A Clinical Decision Support System for the Prevention of Genetic-Related Heart Disease. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. 2017, June 8. In Testimony, a Reboot of Classic TV Hearings Past. New York Times:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004, Arokiaraj and Palacios 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arokiaraj and Palacios 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wallace et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosphere
ISSN (online)2150-8925

Other styles