How to format your references using the Ecosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kazazian, H. H., Jr. 2004. Mobile elements: drivers of genome evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303:1626–1632.
A journal article with 2 authors
Borgdorff, A. J., and D. Choquet. 2002. Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements. Nature 417:649–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Savukov, I. M., S.-K. Lee, and M. V. Romalis. 2006. Optical detection of liquid-state NMR. Nature 442:1021–1024.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoshida, N., K. Oeda, E. Watanabe, T. Mikami, Y. Fukita, K. Nishimura, K. Komai, and K. Matsuda. 2001. Protein function. Chaperonin turned insect toxin. Nature 411:44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hendrick, J. 2010. Law and Ethics in Children’s Nursing. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Mustofa, K., E. J. Neuhold, A. M. Tjoa, E. Weippl, and I. You, editors. 2013. Information and Communication Technology: International Conference, ICT-EurAsia 2013, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, March 25-29, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Senani, R., D. R. Bhaskar, A. K. Singh, and V. K. Singh. 2013. Synthesis of Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CFOAs. Pages 131–179 in D. R. Bhaskar, A. K. Singh, and V. K. Singh, editors. Current Feedback Operational Amplifiers and Their Applications. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosphere.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, August 30. Iceland Volcano Erupts After Weeks of Unrest. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Aviation Security: Challenges Delay Implementation of Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, J. D. 2012. Disparity in healthcare among Black Americans in the United States, a review of the literature. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grisham, J. 2017, May 31. John Grisham’s Suggestions for Writing Popular Fiction. New York Times:BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kazazian 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Borgdorff and Choquet 2002, Kazazian 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Borgdorff and Choquet 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoshida et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosphere
ISSN (online)2150-8925

Other styles