How to format your references using the Ecosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wellman, B. 2001. Computer networks as social networks. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293:2031–2034.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lambert, J. D., and L. M. Nagy. 2002. Asymmetric inheritance of centrosomally localized mRNAs during embryonic cleavages. Nature 420:682–686.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dangl, J. L., D. M. Horvath, and B. J. Staskawicz. 2013. Pivoting the plant immune system from dissection to deployment. Science (New York, N.Y.) 341:746–751.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yan, L., B. Zhu, Z. Jiao, C.-Y. Chen, and I.-M. Chen. 2014. An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors for permanent magnet spherical actuators with 3D magnet array. Scientific reports 4:6756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ward, S. 2014. TraderMind. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Šimko, J. 2014. Semantic Acquisition Games: Harnessing Manpower for Creating Semantics. Page (M. Bieliková, Ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Schreiber, R. 2007. Manycores in the Future. Pages 5–5 in R. Perrott, B. M. Chapman, J. Subhlok, R. F. de Mello, and L. T. Yang, editors. High Performance Computing and Communications: Third International Conference, HPCC 2007, Houston, USA, September 26-28, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, April 15. Factory Made Blood Nearing Human Trials. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Child Care and Early Childhood Education: More Information Sharing and Program Review by HHS Could Enhance Access for Families with Limited English Proficiency (Korean Version). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moody, V. J. 2012. Examining leadership styles and employee engagement in the public and private sectors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chauncey, G. 2013, June 26. The Long Road to Marriage Equality. New York Times:A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wellman 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wellman 2001, Lambert and Nagy 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lambert and Nagy 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosphere
ISSN (online)2150-8925

Other styles