How to format your references using the Ecosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blanchard, J. L. 2015. Climate change: A rewired food web. Nature 527:173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irion, U., and D. St Johnston. 2007. bicoid RNA localization requires specific binding of an endosomal sorting complex. Nature 445:554–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rust, M. J., S. S. Golden, and E. K. O’Shea. 2011. Light-driven changes in energy metabolism directly entrain the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator. Science (New York, N.Y.) 331:220–223.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schalch, T., S. Duda, D. F. Sargent, and T. J. Richmond. 2005. X-ray structure of a tetranucleosome and its implications for the chromatin fibre. Nature 436:138–141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilisoly, R. 2008. Practical Text Mining with Perl. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Birtchnell, J., M. Newberry, and A. Kalaitzaki, editors. 2016. Relating Theory – Clinical and Forensic Applications. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertoni, A., R. Folgieri, and G. Valentini. 2005. Feature Selection Combined with Random Subspace Ensemble for Gene Expression Based Diagnosis of Malignancies. Pages 29–35 in B. Apolloni, M. Marinaro, and R. Tagliaferri, editors. Biological and Artificial Intelligence Environments: 15th Italian Workshop on Neural Nets, WIRN VIETRI 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosphere.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, April 4. Dating The Moon. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Private Management of Public Schools: Early Experiences in Four School Districts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Onal, B. 2015. RFID feasibility study for check-out stations at supermarkets. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. 2002, October 15. For Pfluger, a Career of Achievement. New York Times:D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blanchard 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Irion and St Johnston 2007, Blanchard 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Irion and St Johnston 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Schalch et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosphere
ISSN (online)2150-8925

Other styles