How to format your references using the Ecosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pereira, I. A. C. 2013. Microbiology. An enzymatic route to H2 storage. Science (New York, N.Y.) 342:1329–1330.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grandi, P., and G. G. C. Palumbo. 2004. Jet and accretion-disk emission untangled in 3C 273. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306:998–1002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coulthard, G., W. Erb, and V. K. Aggarwal. 2012. Stereocontrolled organocatalytic synthesis of prostaglandin PGF2α in seven steps. Nature 489:278–281.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Opher, M., F. A. Bibi, G. Toth, J. D. Richardson, V. V. Izmodenov, and T. I. Gombosi. 2009. A strong, highly-tilted interstellar magnetic field near the Solar System. Nature 462:1036–1038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, P., and M. Davies. 2009. Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Proper, E., K. Gaaloul, F. Harmsen, and S. Wrycza, editors. 2012. Practice-Driven Research on Enterprise Transformation: 4th Working Conference, PRET 2012, Gdańsk, Poland, June 27, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Migon, M. P. 2006. Connection of Microcosm with Macrocosm in Max Scheler’s Philosophy: Man, Logos and Ethos. Pages 67–95 in A.-T. Tymieniecka, editor. Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosphere.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016, June 2. The “Dreams” Of Artificial Intelligence Are Getting Even More Lifelike. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. DOE Loan Programs: DOE Has Made More Than $30 Billion in Loans and Guarantees and Needs to Fully Develop Its Loan Monitoring Function. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packard, J. A. 2008. Analyzing the intersection of leadership practices, emotional intelligence, and coping responses in women -owned small businesses. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., and A. L. Baker. 2017, September 29. Bullying Seen as Prelude to Classroom Stabbing. New York Times:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pereira 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Grandi and Palumbo 2004, Pereira 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grandi and Palumbo 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Opher et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosphere
ISSN (online)2150-8925

Other styles