How to format your references using the Distributed Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Distributed Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Verdin, E.: NAD+ in aging, metabolism, and neurodegeneration. Science. 350, 1208–1213 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Gosciniak, J., Tan, D.T.H.: Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators. Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas, A.M., Nadeau, R.M., Bürgmann, R.: Tremor-tide correlations and near-lithostatic pore pressure on the deep San Andreas fault. Nature. 462, 1048–1051 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tian, J., Gong, H., Sheng, N., Zhou, X., Gulari, E., Gao, X., Church, G.: Accurate multiplex gene synthesis from programmable DNA microchips. Nature. 432, 1050–1054 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held, G.: Bulletproofing TCP/IP-based Windows NT/2000 Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2001)
An edited book
Vayenas, C., White, R.E., Gamboa-Aldeco, M.E. eds: Modern Aspects Of Electrochemistry. Springer, New York, NY (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Beckett, I.F.W.: Royalty and the Army in the Twentieth Century. In: Glencross, M., Rowbotham, J., and Kandiah, M.D. (eds.) The Windsor Dynasty 1910 to the Present: “Long to Reign Over Us”? pp. 109–133. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Distributed Computing.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: 60% Of Primate Species Now Threatened With Extinction, Says Major New Study


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Vetting of Airport Workers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2015)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiong, Y.: Immuno-Magnetic T Cell Depletion for Allogeneic Hematological Stem Cell Transplantation, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: The Dangerous Cocoon Of King Football, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDistributed Computing
AbbreviationDistrib. Comput.
ISSN (print)0178-2770
ISSN (online)1432-0452
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles