How to format your references using the Distributed Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Distributed Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zwane, A.P.: Economics. Implications of scarcity. Science. 338, 617–618 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Gariano, R.F., Gardner, T.W.: Retinal angiogenesis in development and disease. Nature. 438, 960–966 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunham, E.M., Favreau, P., Carlson, J.M.: A supershear transition mechanism for cracks. Science. 299, 1557–1559 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Garman, S.C., Wurzburg, B.A., Tarchevskaya, S.S., Kinet, J.P., Jardetzky, T.S.: Structure of the Fc fragment of human IgE bound to its high-affinity receptor Fc epsilonRI alpha. Nature. 406, 259–266 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pai MD FACC FRCP Edin, R.G., Varadarajan MD FACC, P.: Echocardiography Board Review. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Bourke, S.J., Peel, E.T. eds: Integrated Palliative Care of Respiratory Disease. Springer, London (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Xiong, S., Gao, R.: New Approaches to the Problems of Symmetric and Asymmetric Continuous Minimax Optimizations. In: Huang, D.-S., Jo, K.-H., and Hussain, A. (eds.) Intelligent Computing Theories and Methodologies: 11th International Conference, ICIC 2015, Fuzhou, China, August 20-23, 2015, Proceedings, Part II. pp. 36–46. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Distributed Computing.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Secret Chambers Found In Tutankhamun’s Tomb,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2003)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laffier, J.: A qualitative evaluation of the role of artistic expression in psychological empowerment of bullying victims, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr: 24 Years Later, DNA Leads To Arrest in Attack on Girl, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDistributed Computing
AbbreviationDistrib. Comput.
ISSN (print)0178-2770
ISSN (online)1432-0452
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles