How to format your references using the Distributed Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Distributed Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sweatt, J.D.: Neuroscience. Creating stable memories. Science. 331, 869–870 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rees, D.C., Howard, J.B.: The interface between the biological and inorganic worlds: iron-sulfur metalloclusters. Science. 300, 929–931 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Hagan, C.L., Kim, S., Kahne, D.: Reconstitution of outer membrane protein assembly from purified components. Science. 328, 890–892 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bachran, C., Gupta, P.K., Bachran, S., Leysath, C.E., Hoover, B., Fattah, R.J., Leppla, S.H.: Reductive methylation and mutation of an anthrax toxin fusion protein modulates its stability and cytotoxicity. Sci. Rep. 4, 4754 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rémy, J.-G., Letamendia, C.: Home Area Networks and IPTV. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA (2013)
An edited book
Leigh, H., Streltzer, J. eds: Handbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Bengler, K., Bubb, H., Totzke, I., Schumann, J., Flemisch, F.: Automotive. In: Stein, M. and Sandl, P. (eds.) Information Ergonomics: A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation. pp. 99–134. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Distributed Computing.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: How to Produce Sparks from Falling Water,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Joint Strike Fighter: Restructuring Should Improve Outcomes, but Progress Is Still Lagging Overall. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ennaco, W.A.: Mastering morphosyntax: A pre-experimental study on the effectiveness of a parent-training program for preschoolaged children with specific language impairment, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N., Kramer, A.E.: Putin Sees Path to Diplomacy Through Syria, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDistributed Computing
AbbreviationDistrib. Comput.
ISSN (print)0178-2770
ISSN (online)1432-0452
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles