How to format your references using the Virulence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virulence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kahn CR. Medicine. Can we nip obesity in its vascular bud? Science 2008; 322:542–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Tang S, Presgraves DC. Evolution of the Drosophila nuclear pore complex results in multiple hybrid incompatibilities. Science 2009; 323:779–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kalas P, Liu MC, Matthews BC. Discovery of a large dust disk around the nearby star AU Microscopii. Science 2004; 303:1990–2.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Colman-Lerner A, Gordon A, Serra E, Chin T, Resnekov O, Endy D, Pesce CG, Brent R. Regulated cell-to-cell variation in a cell-fate decision system. Nature 2005; 437:699–706.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ghiani G, Laporte G, Musmanno R. Introduction to Logistics Systems Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1.
P D. Operators for Similarity Search: Semantics, Techniques and Usage Scenarios. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zurita G, Nussbaum M. An Ad-Hoc Wireless Network Architecture for Face-to-Face Mobile Collaborative Applications. In: Grass W, Sick B, Waldschmidt K, editors. Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2006: 19th International Conference, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, March 13-16, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. page 42–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virulence.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R. We May Have Just A Year To Prepare For A Supervolcanic Eruption. IFLScience2016;

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Misuse of SBA’s 8(a) Program Increased Cost for Many ADP Equipment Acquisitions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Yu G. Religious/spiritual beliefs and practices of Asian/Asian American mental health professionals & students and the impact on treatment. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L. Sorting Out their Goals, and Options. New York Times2009; :WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVirulence
AbbreviationVirulence
ISSN (print)2150-5594
ISSN (online)2150-5608
ScopeImmunology
Microbiology
Parasitology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles