How to format your references using the Virulence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virulence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mignot E. Physiology. The perfect hypnotic? Science 2013; 340:36–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee AJ, You L. Cell biology. Cells listen to their inner voice. Science 2014; 343:624–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bewley GP, Lathrop DP, Sreenivasan KR. Superfluid helium: visualization of quantized vortices. Nature 2006; 441:588.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Svedhem H, Titov DV, Taylor FW, Witasse O. Venus as a more Earth-like planet. Nature 2007; 450:629–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kay R. Statistical Thinking for Non-Statisticians in Drug Regulation. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Schippers A, Glombitza F, Sand W, editors. Geobiotechnology I: Metal-related Issues. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakao T, Kaneko K, Masui K, Tsubaki H. Combinatorial Usage of QFDE and LCA for Environmentally Conscious Design. In: Tsubaki H, Yamada S, Nishina K, editors. The Grammar of Technology Development. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2008. page 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virulence.

Blog post
Andrew E. Major Autism Advocacy Organization States “Vaccines Do Not Cause Autism” [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Needs Enhanced Oversight and Performance Measures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu CC. Charles T. Griffes’s “Roman Sketches”: A performer’s guide. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conklin K. Honest Work, Honest Pay. New York Times2005; :14NJ15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVirulence
ISSN (print)2150-5594
ISSN (online)2150-5608
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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