How to format your references using the Virulence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virulence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Damasio A. Fundamental feelings. Nature 2001; 413:781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lv X, Weng J. Ternary composite of hemin, gold nanoparticles and graphene for highly efficient decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Sci Rep 2013; 3:3285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wada S, Oishi M, Yamada TK. A newly discovered species of living baleen whale. Nature 2003; 426:278–81.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nguyen VD, Torres WS, Laczkowski P, Marty A, Jamet M, Beigné C, Notin L, Vila L, Attané JP. Elementary depinning processes of magnetic domain walls under fields and currents. Sci Rep 2014; 4:6509.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Linacre AMT, Tobe SS. Wildlife DNA Analysis. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Zhang C, Ma Y, editors. Ensemble Machine Learning: Methods and Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Truex D, Holmström J. Dropping Your Tools. In: McMaster T, Wastell D, Ferneley E, DeGross JI, editors. Organizational Dynamics of Technology-Based Innovation: Diversifying the Research Agenda: IFIP TC 8 WG 8.6 International Working Conference, June 14–16, Manchester, UK. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. page 31–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virulence.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Neutron Star Collisions May Explain Origin Of Heavy Elements Like Gold [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Lacked Authority to Create Corporations to Administer Universal Service Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hatton JD. The Changing Dynamics of Health Care: Physician Perceptions of Technology in Medical Practices. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Just for You, Sarah Jessica, but .. New York Times2010; :E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVirulence
ISSN (print)2150-5594
ISSN (online)2150-5608
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles