How to format your references using the Virulence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virulence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Chambers J. Planetary science: Archaeology of the asteroid belt. Nature 2009; 460:963–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Chambers JQ, Roberts DA. Ecology: drought in the congo basin. Nature 2014; 509:36–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lee JLC, Everitt BJ, Thomas KL. Independent cellular processes for hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Science 2004; 304:839–43.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Choi M, Scholl UI, Yue P, Björklund P, Zhao B, Nelson-Williams C, Ji W, Cho Y, Patel A, Men CJ, et al. K+ channel mutations in adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas and hereditary hypertension. Science 2011; 331:768–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ko CJ, Barr RJ. Dermatopathology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Vukotic A. Apache Tomcat 7. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Capelotti PJ. Mobile Artifacts in the Solar System and Beyond. In: O’Leary BL, Capelotti PJ, editors. Archaeology and Heritage of the Human Movement into Space. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virulence.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. A Bizarre Foam Blob Is Taking Over A Street In California — Here’s What’s Causing It [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/a-bizarre-foam-blob-is-taking-over-a-street-in-california-heres-whats-causing-it/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Law Enforcement: Information on the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department Gang Reporting, Evaluation, and Tracking System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Laird T. Risk and protective factors associated with adjudicated versus non -adjudicated youths arrested for substance use. 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. Arts, Briefly; Shopping Picasso. New York Times2006; :B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleVirulence
AbbreviationVirulence
ISSN (print)2150-5594
ISSN (online)2150-5608
ScopeImmunology
Microbiology
Parasitology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles