How to format your references using the Virulence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virulence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Schiermeier Q. Small is beautiful. Nature 2005; 435:532–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Dey S, Joshi A. Stability via asynchrony in Drosophila metapopulations with low migration rates. Science 2006; 312:434–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Castro-Camus E, Palomar M, Covarrubias AA. Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Sci Rep 2013; 3:2910.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Rodgers JT, Lerin C, Haas W, Gygi SP, Spiegelman BM, Puigserver P. Nutrient control of glucose homeostasis through a complex of PGC-1alpha and SIRT1. Nature 2005; 434:113–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lynn PA. Electricity from Sunlight. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Sandkuhl K. Enterprise Modeling: Tackling Business Challenges with the 4EM Method. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Perlikowski P, Yanchuk S, Wolfrum M, Stefanski A, Kapitaniak T. Dynamics of a Large Ring of Unidirectionally Coupled Duffing Oscillators. In: Wiercigroch M, Rega G, editors. IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design, held Aberdeen, UK, 27-30 July 2010. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. page 63–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virulence.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. Why You Should Date Your Best Friend [Internet]. IFLScience2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/why-you-should-date-your-best-friend/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial Condition and Costly Future Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Holmes K. Ethical practice online: An exploration of provider liability risk among practitioners in the emerging field of online therapy. 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L. Elections Could Shift Power in Nassau. New York Times2007; :14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVirulence
AbbreviationVirulence
ISSN (print)2150-5594
ISSN (online)2150-5608
ScopeImmunology
Microbiology
Parasitology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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