How to format your references using the Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willett, Walter C. 2002. “Balancing Life-Style and Genomics Research for Disease Prevention.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5568): 695–698.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilg, Olivier, and Nigel G. Yoccoz. 2010. “Ecology. Explaining Bird Migration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5963): 276–277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Banerjee, Anirban, Webster L. Santos, and Gregory L. Verdine. 2006. “Structure of a DNA Glycosylase Searching for Lesions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5764): 1153–1157.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, Jiadong, Yanfeng Gao, Zongtao Zhang, Hongjie Luo, Chuanxiang Cao, Zhang Chen, Lei Dai, and Xinling Liu. 2013. “VO₂ Thermochromic Smart Window for Energy Savings and Generation.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 3029.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verma, J. P. 2016. Sports Research with Analytical Solution Using SPSS®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bernardi, Simona. 2013. Model-Driven Dependability Assessment of Software Systems. Edited by José Merseguer and Dorina Corina Petriu. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marjovi, Ali, and Lino Marques. 2013. “Multi-Robot Topological Exploration Using Olfactory Cues.” In Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems: The 10th International Symposium, edited by Alcherio Martinoli, Francesco Mondada, Nikolaus Correll, Grégory Mermoud, Magnus Egerstedt, M. Ani Hsieh, Lynne E. Parker, and Kasper Støy, 47–60. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Oldest Known Rock Discovered.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. SSA Services to Employers. HEHS-95-38R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dovale, Madeline J. 2013. “Postwar Japan’s Hybrid Modernity of in-Betweenness: Historical, Literary, and Social Perspectives.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, Michael. 2017. “To Say Hello To Dolly, Say Bye to $1,009.” New York Times, October 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willett 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Willett 2002; Gilg and Yoccoz 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gilg and Yoccoz 2010)
  • Three authors: (Banerjee, Santos, and Verdine 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Studies
AbbreviationEduc. Stud.
ISSN (print)0305-5698
ISSN (online)1465-3400

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