How to format your references using the Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegfried, Tom. 2005. “In Praise of Hard Questions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5731): 76–77.
A journal article with 2 authors
Entcheva, Emilia, and John C. Williams. 2014. “Channelrhodopsin2 Current during the Action Potential: ‘Optical AP Clamp’ and Approximation.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowman, David, Geoffrey King, and Paul Tapponnier. 2003. “Slip Partitioning by Elastoplastic Propagation of Oblique Slip at Depth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5622): 1121–1123.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Seki, Kanako, Masafumi Hirahara, Masahiro Hoshino, Toshio Terasawa, Richard C. Elphic, Yoshifumi Saito, Toshifumi Mukai, Hajime Hayakawa, Hirotsugu Kojima, and Hiroshi Matsumoto. 2003. “Cold Ions in the Hot Plasma Sheet of Earth’s Magnetotail.” Nature 422 (6932): 589–592.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruske, Walter. 1971. Verlag Chemie 1921-1971. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wanner, Adam, and Robert A. Sandhaus, eds. 2016. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin: Role in Health and Disease. 1st ed. 2016. Respiratory Medicine. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nicol, David M., and Michael Liljenstam. 2005. “Models and Analysis of Active Worm Defense.” In Computer Network Security: Third International Workshop on Mathematical Methods, Models, and Architectures for Computer Network Security, MMM-ACNS 2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 24-28, 2005. Proceedings, edited by Vladimir Gorodetsky, Igor Kotenko, and Victor Skormin, 38–53. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Scientists At Work: Tracing The Origin Of Ancient Water Flows On Mars In the Lab.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Space-Based Lasers. 117803. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Surges, Gregory. 2015. “Generative Audio Systems: Musical Applications of Time-Varying Feedback Networks and Computational Aesthetics.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, Benjamin, and Emily Palmer. 2015. “Suspect in Pregnant Woman’s Death Left Cryptic Trail.” New York Times, November 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegfried 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Siegfried 2005; Entcheva and Williams 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Entcheva and Williams 2014)
  • Three authors: (Bowman, King, and Tapponnier 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Seki et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Studies
AbbreviationEduc. Stud.
ISSN (print)0305-5698
ISSN (online)1465-3400

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