How to format your references using the Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carbone, A. 2013. “Information Measure for Long-Range Correlated Sequences: The Case of the 24 Human Chromosomes.” Scientific Reports 3: 2721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vert, Grégory, and Joanne Chory. 2006. “Downstream Nuclear Events in Brassinosteroid Signalling.” Nature 441 (7089): 96–100.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pendry, J. B., Yu Luo, and Rongkuo Zhao. 2015. “Transforming the Optical Landscape.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6234): 521–524.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Acharya, Usha, Shetal Patel, Edmund Koundakjian, Kunio Nagashima, Xianlin Han, and Jairaj K. Acharya. 2003. “Modulating Sphingolipid Biosynthetic Pathway Rescues Photoreceptor Degeneration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5613): 1740–1743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belliotti, Raymond Angelo. 2011. Dante’s Deadly Sins. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Williams, P. John, and C. Paul Newhouse, eds. 2013. Digital Representations of Student Performance for Assessment. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
van Bevern, René, Robert Bredereck, Morgan Chopin, Sepp Hartung, Falk Hüffner, André Nichterlein, and Ondřej Suchý. 2013. “Parameterized Complexity of DAG Partitioning.” In Algorithms and Complexity: 8th International Conference, CIAC 2013, Barcelona, Spain, May 22-24, 2013. Proceedings, edited by Paul G. Spirakis and Maria Serna, 49–60. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Shortlist Finalists Have Been Announced for Sony World Photography Awards.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center: Cost Growth and Other Factors Affect Closure and Privatization. NSIAD-95-60. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazgaeen, Lalita. 2017. “Differential RNAi Approaches to Enhance Knockdown Efficiency of Target Gene Transcripts in the Highly DDT-Resistant 91-R Strain of Drosophila Melanogaster.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nagourney, Adam, Ian Lovett, and Rick Rojas. 2015. “Community Struck by Massacre Seemed on Verge of Turnaround.” New York Times, December 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carbone 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Carbone 2013; Vert and Chory 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vert and Chory 2006)
  • Three authors: (Pendry, Luo, and Zhao 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Acharya et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Studies
AbbreviationEduc. Stud.
ISSN (print)0305-5698
ISSN (online)1465-3400

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