How to format your references using the Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, Jonathan. 2003. “Meeting Aims to Find Brain’s Benchmarks for Beauty.” Nature 421 (6921): 305.
A journal article with 2 authors
Day, James, and John Beamish. 2007. “Low-Temperature Shear Modulus Changes in Solid 4He and Connection to Supersolidity.” Nature 450 (7171): 853–856.
A journal article with 3 authors
Queitsch, Christine, Todd A. Sangster, and Susan Lindquist. 2002. “Hsp90 as a Capacitor of Phenotypic Variation.” Nature 417 (6889): 618–624.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Greaves, Stuart J., Rebecca A. Rose, Thomas A. A. Oliver, David R. Glowacki, Michael N. R. Ashfold, Jeremy N. Harvey, Ian P. Clark, et al. 2011. “Vibrationally Quantum-State-Specific Reaction Dynamics of H Atom Abstraction by CN Radical in Solution.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6023): 1423–1426.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F. 2011. Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mansourian, Stephanie. 2005. Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees. Edited by Daniel Vallauri and Nigel Dudley. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Katz, Toam R. 2016. “Sources of Error in Corneal Refractive Surgery.” In Complications in Corneal Laser Surgery, edited by Stephan J. Linke and Toam Katz, 33–38. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Black Holes In Colliding Galaxies Might Be Ripping Stars Apart More Frequently Than Thought.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Digital Television Transition: Increased Federal Planning and Risk Management Could Further Facilitate the DTV Transition. GAO-08-43. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernal, Elaine. 2013. “Ethnographic Research of Emergent Cultural Themes from Technology-Based Informal Education in a Museum.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, John. 2017. “The Blink of an Eye.” New York Times, March 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knight 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Knight 2003; Day and Beamish 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Day and Beamish 2007)
  • Three authors: (Queitsch, Sangster, and Lindquist 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Greaves et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Studies
AbbreviationEduc. Stud.
ISSN (print)0305-5698
ISSN (online)1465-3400

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