How to format your references using the Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spiegel, Allen. 2003. “Cell Signaling. Beta-Arrestin--Not Just for G Protein-Coupled Receptors.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5638): 1338–1339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tulin, Alexei, and Allan Spradling. 2003. “Chromatin Loosening by Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase (PARP) at Drosophila Puff Loci.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5606): 560–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rhode, S. C., M. Pawlowski, and R. Tollrian. 2001. “The Impact of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Vertical Distribution of Zooplankton of the Genus Daphnia.” Nature 412 (6842): 69–72.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Peer, Dan, Eun Jeong Park, Yoshiyuki Morishita, Christopher V. Carman, and Motomu Shimaoka. 2008. “Systemic Leukocyte-Directed SiRNA Delivery Revealing Cyclin D1 as an Anti-Inflammatory Target.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5863): 627–630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Chartered Institute of Building. 2008. Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Kourtev, Ivan S., Baris Taskin, and Eby G. Friedman, eds. 2009. Timing Optimization Through Clock Skew Scheduling. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Roper, Stephen D. 2014. “TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis.” In Mammalian Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Cation Channels: Volume II, edited by Bernd Nilius and Veit Flockerzi, 827–871. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Asthmatic Sea Otter Learns To Use An Inhaler.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. President’s Fifth Special Message for FY 1983. OGC-83-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baldasaro, Ruth E. 2013. “Person Level Analysis in Latent Growth Curve Models.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vasquez, Ehiracenia. 2015. “A Life Without Papers.” New York Times, March 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spiegel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Spiegel 2003; Tulin and Spradling 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tulin and Spradling 2003)
  • Three authors: (Rhode, Pawlowski, and Tollrian 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Peer et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Studies
AbbreviationEduc. Stud.
ISSN (print)0305-5698
ISSN (online)1465-3400

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