How to format your references using the Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, Robert N. 2006. “Planetary Science: Meteorites and Their Parent Asteroids.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5794): 1743–1744.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brazeau, Martin D., and Per E. Ahlberg. 2006. “Tetrapod-like Middle Ear Architecture in a Devonian Fish.” Nature 439 (7074): 318–321.
A journal article with 3 authors
Euler, Thomas, Peter B. Detwiler, and Winfried Denk. 2002. “Directionally Selective Calcium Signals in Dendrites of Starburst Amacrine Cells.” Nature 418 (6900): 845–852.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Ziwei, Damien Beaufils, Jean-Christophe Rossi, and Robert Pascal. 2014. “Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7440.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Happer, William, Yuan-Yu Jau, and Thad Walker. 2010. Optically Pumped Atoms. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Orlandini, Danilo. 2007. Manuale Di Accreditamento Delle Strutture Diabetologiche. Edited by Gualtiero De Bigontina. Terza edizione. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hinkson, Grant, Craig Erskine, Matt Heerema, Chuck Mallott, Matthew Keefe, and Hugh Griffith. 2009. “Exporting from Fireworks to the Web.” In Foundation Fireworks CS4, edited by Craig Erskine, Matt Heerema, Chuck Mallott, Matthew Keefe, Hugh Griffith, Clay Andres, Douglas Pundick, et al., 74–96. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Studies.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “Global Warming Is Turning Cities Into Costly ‘Urban Heat Islands.’” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Surface Transportation Security: TSA Has Taken Actions to Manage Risk, Improve Coordination, and Measure Performance, but Additional Actions Would Enhance Its Efforts. GAO-10-650T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Demenkoff, John Haynes. 2014. “Evolution and Emergence of the Masculinities: Epiphanies and Epiphenomena of the Male Athlete and Dancer.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, George. 2013. “Mozart Is the Big Draw, but Variety Is the Goal.” New York Times, January 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Clayton 2006; Brazeau and Ahlberg 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brazeau and Ahlberg 2006)
  • Three authors: (Euler, Detwiler, and Denk 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Studies
AbbreviationEduc. Stud.
ISSN (print)0305-5698
ISSN (online)1465-3400

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