How to format your references using the Virtual Reality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual Reality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kahan DM (2013) Social science. A risky science communication environment for vaccines. Science 342:53–54
A journal article with 2 authors
DeSimone DW, Horwitz AR (2014) Cell Biology. Many modes of motility. Science 345:1002–1003
A journal article with 3 authors
LaRiviere FJ, Wolfson AD, Uhlenbeck OC (2001) Uniform binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to elongation factor Tu by thermodynamic compensation. Science 294:165–168
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kim MC, Panstruga R, Elliott C, et al (2002) Calmodulin interacts with MLO protein to regulate defence against mildew in barley. Nature 416:447–451

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abracen J, Looman J (2015) Treatment of High-Risk Sexual Offenders. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Andrade C, Gulikers J, Polder R (eds) (2015) Durability of Reinforced Concrete from Composition to Protection: Selected Papers of the 6th International RILEM PhD Workshop held in Delft, The Netherlands, July 4-5, 2013. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Boukayoua F, Vossaert J, De Decker B, Naessens V (2012) Claim-Based versus Network-Based Identity Management: A Hybrid Approach. In: Schmidt AU, Russello G, Krontiris I, Lian S (eds) Security and Privacy in Mobile Information and Communication Systems: 4th International Conference, MobiSec 2012, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, June 25-26, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 38–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual Reality.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) “Secret Ginger Gene” May Increase Risk Of Developing Skin Cancer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Interstate Compacts: Transparency and Oversight of Bi-State Tolling Authorities Could Be Enhanced. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya S (2013) Characterization of Interaction of Calmodulin and its Chimeras with Orai1. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Scouting Report. New York Times E5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kahan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kahan 2013; DeSimone and Horwitz 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DeSimone and Horwitz 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual Reality
AbbreviationVirtual Real.
ISSN (print)1359-4338
ISSN (online)1434-9957
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles