How to format your references using the Virtual Reality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual Reality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeman N (2015) Use data to challenge mental-health stigma. Nature 528:309
A journal article with 2 authors
Caputo JM, Collins SH (2014) Prosthetic ankle push-off work reduces metabolic rate but not collision work in non-amputee walking. Sci Rep 4:7213
A journal article with 3 authors
Gill DL, Spassova MA, Soboloff J (2006) Signal transduction. Calcium entry signals--trickles and torrents. Science 313:183–184
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schmid MF, Sherman MB, Matsudaira P, Chiu W (2004) Structure of the acrosomal bundle. Nature 431:104–107

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Decreusefond L, Moyal P (2012) Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Telecom Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Luck M, Padgham L (eds) (2008) Agent-Oriented Software Engineering VIII: 8th International Workshop, AOSE 2007, Honolulu, HI, USA, May 14, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Cleophas TJ, Zwinderman AH (2010) Linear Regression (20 Patients). In: Zwinderman AH (ed) SPSS for Starters: SPSS for Starters. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 15–19

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual Reality.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) If You Develop Alzheimer’s, Will Your Children Get It Too? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Real Estate Expenses]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sitterding MC (2014) Situation awareness and the selection of interruption handling strategies during the medication administration process: A qualitative study. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Himelstein L (2017) Hotel Buffets, a Culprit of Waste, Get Downsized. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seeman 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Caputo and Collins 2014; Seeman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Caputo and Collins 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmid et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual Reality
AbbreviationVirtual Real.
ISSN (print)1359-4338
ISSN (online)1434-9957
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles