How to format your references using the Virtual Reality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual Reality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kauer JS (2002) On the scents of smell in the salamander. Nature 417:336–342
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen JC, Hobbs HH (2013) Genetics. Simple genetics for a complex disease. Science 340:689–690
A journal article with 3 authors
Cappellini E, Collins MJ, Gilbert MTP (2014) Biochemistry. Unlocking ancient protein palimpsests. Science 343:1320–1322
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yazaki-Sugiyama Y, Kang S, Câteau H, et al (2009) Bidirectional plasticity in fast-spiking GABA circuits by visual experience. Nature 462:218–221

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dao TT, Ho Ba Tho M-C (2014) Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Macintosh A, Ellis R, Allen T (eds) (2006) Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XIII: Proceedings of AI-2005, the Twenty-fifth SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, UK, December 2005. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Press M (2009) Glucose Sensors and Insulin Pumps: Prospects for an Artificial Pancreas. In: Hakim NS (ed) Artificial Organs. Springer, London, pp 77–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual Reality.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Certain Men Really Oversell Their Penis Size, According To Bizarre Survey. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Telecommunications: Challenges to Assessing and Improving Telecommunications For Native Americans on Tribal Lands. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felsburg DF (2008) The business of evangelism: A phenomenological study of frustration and attrition among Christian evangelists. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD (2017) Ask Him Anything, Unless It’s About Trump. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kauer 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kauer 2002; Cohen and Hobbs 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cohen and Hobbs 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yazaki-Sugiyama et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual Reality
AbbreviationVirtual Real.
ISSN (print)1359-4338
ISSN (online)1434-9957
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles