How to format your references using the Virtual Reality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual Reality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Huene R (2008) Geophysics. When seamounts subduct. Science 321:1165–1166
A journal article with 2 authors
Roll-Mecak A, Vale RD (2008) Structural basis of microtubule severing by the hereditary spastic paraplegia protein spastin. Nature 451:363–367
A journal article with 3 authors
Pepe F, Ehrenreich D, Meyer MR (2014) Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Nature 513:358–366
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Paz-Y-Miño C G, Bond AB, Kamil AC, Balda RP (2004) Pinyon jays use transitive inference to predict social dominance. Nature 430:778–781

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pollak P (2011) Fine Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pelikan M, Sastry K, CantúPaz E (eds) (2006) Scalable Optimization via Probabilistic Modeling. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Dumur CI (2015) Molecular Methodologies. In: Idowu MO, Dumur CI, Garrett CT (eds) Molecular Oncology Testing for Solid Tumors: A Pragmatic Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 153–170

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual Reality.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Hepatitis C: Behind New Wonder Drugs Lies A Terrible Dilemma. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Tax Systems Modernization: Actions Underway But IRS Has Not Yet Corrected Management and Technical Weaknesses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naqvi SZ (2017) Around the world in 15 bites: Applied perspectives on learning about food. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fausset R, Blinder A, Eligon J (2016) Blacks Beg to Differ With Trump’s Depiction. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (von Huene 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Roll-Mecak and Vale 2008; von Huene 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roll-Mecak and Vale 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Paz-Y-Miño C et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual Reality
AbbreviationVirtual Real.
ISSN (print)1359-4338
ISSN (online)1434-9957
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles