How to format your references using the Virtual Reality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual Reality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matsuda R (2014) Materials chemistry: Selectivity from flexibility. Nature 509:434–435
A journal article with 2 authors
Gomez Perdiguero E, Geissmann F (2014) Cancer immunology. Identifying the infiltrators. Science 344:801–802
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu H, Tang H, Xu P (2014) Green strategy from waste to value-added-chemical production: efficient biosynthesis of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine by an engineered biocatalyst. Sci Rep 4:5397
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Weavers H, Prieto-Sánchez S, Grawe F, et al (2009) The insect nephrocyte is a podocyte-like cell with a filtration slit diaphragm. Nature 457:322–326

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Retherford RD, Choe MK (1993) Statistical Models for Causal Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pfenning F (ed) (2007) Automated Deduction – CADE-21: 21st International Conference on Automated Deduction Bremen, Germany, July 17-20, 2007 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Burriss ET, Alici G, Spinks GM, McGovern S (2011) Modelling and Performance Enhancement of a Linear Actuation Mechanism Using Conducting Polymers. In: Cetto JA, Filipe J, Ferrier J-L (eds) Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics: Revised and Selected Papers from the International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics 2009. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 63–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual Reality.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Scientists Create Yeast That Produces THC. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Technology: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoefer PD (2010) A David against Goliath: The American veterans committee’s challenge to the American legion in the 1950s. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2010) Super Powers: Turning a Dime Into a Million Bucks. New York Times WK2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matsuda 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Matsuda 2014; Gomez Perdiguero and Geissmann 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gomez Perdiguero and Geissmann 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Weavers et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual Reality
AbbreviationVirtual Real.
ISSN (print)1359-4338
ISSN (online)1434-9957
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

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