How to format your references using the Virtual Reality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual Reality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sligar SG (2010) Chemistry. Glimpsing the critical intermediate in cytochrome P450 oxidations. Science 330:924–925
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsubouchi T, Roeder GS (2005) A synaptonemal complex protein promotes homology-independent centromere coupling. Science 308:870–873
A journal article with 3 authors
Durham WM, Kessler JO, Stocker R (2009) Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin phytoplankton layers. Science 323:1067–1070
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Alvarez-Filip L, Carricart-Ganivet JP, Horta-Puga G, Iglesias-Prieto R (2013) Shifts in coral-assemblage composition do not ensure persistence of reef functionality. Sci Rep 3:3486

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith RE, Carraher E, DeLisle P (2017) Leading Collaborative Architectural Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pitkethly J (2005) Dualisability: Unary Algebras and Beyond. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Ahlswede R, Ahlswede A, Althöfer I, et al (2015) On $$\lambda $$ -Capacities and Information Stability. In: Ahlswede A, Althöfer I, Deppe C, Tamm U (eds) Transmitting and Gaining Data: Rudolf Ahlswede’s Lectures on Information Theory 2. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 299–321

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual Reality.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Top 10 Insane Unexplained Scientific Discoveries. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Air Traffic Control: FAA’s Modernization Efforts--Past, Present, and Future. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jorge MH (2004) Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Daoud K (2017) What Arabs Have Learned From Syria’s War. New York Times SR9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sligar 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Tsubouchi and Roeder 2005; Sligar 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tsubouchi and Roeder 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Alvarez-Filip et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual Reality
AbbreviationVirtual Real.
ISSN (print)1359-4338
ISSN (online)1434-9957
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

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