How to format your references using the Virtual and Physical Prototyping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual and Physical Prototyping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Osborne, Ian. 2015. “Light and Optics. Frontiers in Light & Optics. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6234): 514–515.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huard, B., and L. Karlsson. 2000. “KIR Expression on Self-Reactive CD8+ T Cells Is Controlled by T-Cell Receptor Engagement.” Nature 403 (6767): 325–328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Booker, John R., Alicia Favetto, and M. Cristina Pomposiello. 2004. “Low Electrical Resistivity Associated with Plunging of the Nazca Flat Slab beneath Argentina.” Nature 429 (6990): 399–403.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fiquet, G., J. Badro, F. Guyot, H. Requardt, and M. Krisch. 2001. “Sound Velocities in Iron to 110 Gigapascals.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5503): 468–471.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, David. 2012. Visual Guide to Financial Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Capasso, Francesco. 2006. Fitofarmacovigilanza: Vigilanza Sulla Sicurezza Dei Prodotti Fitoterapici. Edited by Francesca Borrelli, Stefano Castaldo, and Giuliano Grandolini. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Horvath, Joan, Lyn Hoge, and Rich Cameron. 2016. “Making and Using Sewing Patterns.” In Practical Fashion Tech: Wearable Technologies for Costuming, Cosplay, and Everyday, edited by Lyn Hoge and Rich Cameron, 57–80. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual and Physical Prototyping.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Russian Man Will Become Subject Of First Human Head Transplant Ever Performed.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Aviation Workforce: Current and Future Availability of Airline Pilots. GAO-14-232. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deshotel, Matthew Wayne. 2017. “Enhancing Undergraduate Water Resources Engineering Education Using Data and Modeling Resources Situated in Real-World Ecosystems: Design Principles and Challenges for Scaling and Sustainability.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, Linda. 2015. “Chelsea Tyler and Jon Foster: The Cradle Also Rocks.” New York Times, June 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Osborne 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Osborne 2015; Huard and Karlsson 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huard and Karlsson 2000)
  • Three authors: (Booker, Favetto, and Pomposiello 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fiquet et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual and Physical Prototyping
AbbreviationVirtual Phys. Prototyp.
ISSN (print)1745-2759
ISSN (online)1745-2767
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Signal Processing
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles