How to format your references using the Virtual and Physical Prototyping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual and Physical Prototyping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenberg, Rebecca S. 2003. “Science and the Law. Patent Swords and Shields.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5609): 1018–1019.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kent, Dennis V., and Lisa Tauxe. 2005. “Corrected Late Triassic Latitudes for Continents Adjacent to the North Atlantic.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5707): 240–244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lampard, Gregory R., Cora A. Macalister, and Dominique C. Bergmann. 2008. “Arabidopsis Stomatal Initiation Is Controlled by MAPK-Mediated Regulation of the BHLH SPEECHLESS.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5904): 1113–1116.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tong, W. P., N. R. Tao, Z. B. Wang, J. Lu, and K. Lu. 2003. “Nitriding Iron at Lower Temperatures.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5607): 686–688.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, Rex. 2005. Rational Choice and Judgment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nguyen, Ngoc-Thanh, Joanna Kołodziej, Tadeusz Burczyński, and Marenglen Biba, eds. 2013. Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence X. Vol. 7776. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cremona, J. E., and M. T. Aranés. 2014. “Congruence Subgroups, Cusps and Manin Symbols over Number Fields.” In Computations with Modular Forms: Proceedings of a Summer School and Conference, Heidelberg, August/September 2011, edited by Gebhard Böckle and Gabor Wiese, 109–127. Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual and Physical Prototyping.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Blending Conventional And Concentrated Solar Captures Light Under Cloudy Skies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. NASA ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information. IMTEC-90-39FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray, Robyn T. 2015. “Utilization of a Clinical Reminder System to Increase the Incidence of HIV Screening in a Primary Care Clinic.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “Half a Million Viewers For ‘Twin Peaks’ Return.” New York Times, May 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenberg 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenberg 2003; Kent and Tauxe 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kent and Tauxe 2005)
  • Three authors: (Lampard, Macalister, and Bergmann 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tong et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual and Physical Prototyping
AbbreviationVirtual Phys. Prototyp.
ISSN (print)1745-2759
ISSN (online)1745-2767
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Signal Processing
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles