How to format your references using the Virtual and Physical Prototyping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual and Physical Prototyping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P. 2000. “Exploring the Territory in Tissue Engineering.” Nature 403 (6768): 464–465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singleton, Andrew B., and Bryan J. Traynor. 2015. “Genetics. For Complex Disease Genetics, Collaboration Drives Progress.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6229): 1422–1423.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palmer, Megan J., Francis Fukuyama, and David A. Relman. 2015. “SCIENCE GOVERNANCE. A More Systematic Approach to Biological Risk.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6267): 1471–1473.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Schmidt, M. W., J. A. D. Connolly, D. Günther, and M. Bogaerts. 2006. “Element Partitioning: The Role of Melt Structure and Composition.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5780): 1646–1650.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanley, Weinstein, and Barden Pamela. 2017. The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jeusfeld, Manfred A., and Kamalakar Karlapalem, eds. 2015. Advances in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2015 Workshops AHA, CMS, EMoV, MoBID, MORE-BI, MReBA, QMMQ, and SCME, Stockholm, Sweden, October 19-22, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Vol. 9382. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ehrig, Hartmut, Karsten Ehrig, Claudia Ermel, and Ulrike Prange. 2008. “Consistent Integration of Models Based on Views of Visual Languages.” In Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering: 11th International Conference, FASE 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29-April 6, 2008. Proceedings, edited by José Luiz Fiadeiro and Paola Inverardi, 62–76. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual and Physical Prototyping.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Dragonflies Can Predict Their Prey’s Next Move.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Wider Use of Better Computer Software Technology Can Improve Management Control and Reduce Costs. FGMSD-80-38. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olsen, Corinne M. 2009. “A Violinist in a Non-Classical World: Sugizo’s Use of Violin in Popular Music.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirshman, Linda. 2007. “Off to Work She Should Go.” New York Times, April 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickware 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Wickware 2000; Singleton and Traynor 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singleton and Traynor 2015)
  • Three authors: (Palmer, Fukuyama, and Relman 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Schmidt et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual and Physical Prototyping
AbbreviationVirtual Phys. Prototyp.
ISSN (print)1745-2759
ISSN (online)1745-2767
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Signal Processing
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles