How to format your references using the Virtual and Physical Prototyping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual and Physical Prototyping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, Michelle. 2012. “Physics Masterclass.” Nature 490 (7419): S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martinez, L. M., and C. A. Angell. 2001. “A Thermodynamic Connection to the Fragility of Glass-Forming Liquids.” Nature 410 (6829): 663–667.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malakoff, David, Jake Yeston, and Jesse Smith. 2010. “Getting Better to Get Bigger.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5993): 779.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
St-Pierre, Charles, Sylvie Brochu, Juan Ruiz Vanegas, Maude Dumont-Lagacé, Sébastien Lemieux, and Claude Perreault. 2013. “Transcriptome Sequencing of Neonatal Thymic Epithelial Cells.” Scientific Reports 3: 1860.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stacey, Weston M. 2010. Fusion. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Rikowski, Ruth, ed. 2011. Digitisation Perspectives. Vol. 46. Educational Futures Rethinking Theory and Practice. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, Xiao, Jiaqi Ye, and Fuji Ren. 2015. “Hybrid Model Based Influenza Detection with Sentiment Analysis from Social Networks.” In Social Media Processing: 4th National Conference, SMP 2015, Guangzhou, China, November 16-17, 2015, Proceedings, edited by Xichun Zhang, Maosong Sun, Zhenyu Wang, and Xuanjing Huang, 51–62. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual and Physical Prototyping.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “This Site Helps You Delete Your Accounts And Disappear From The Internet.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. DOD’s Data Banks on Contractors’ Independent Research and Development Programs. B-163391. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ogawa, Naoki. 2012. “A Man Walks into the World.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, William. 2014. “Colombian Rebels Call Unilateral Truce.” New York Times, December 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Grayson 2012; Martinez and Angell 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martinez and Angell 2001)
  • Three authors: (Malakoff, Yeston, and Smith 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (St-Pierre et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual and Physical Prototyping
AbbreviationVirtual Phys. Prototyp.
ISSN (print)1745-2759
ISSN (online)1745-2767
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Signal Processing
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

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