How to format your references using the Virtual and Physical Prototyping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual and Physical Prototyping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehrenreich, Hannelore. 2004. “Medicine. A Boost for Translational Neuroscience.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5681): 184–185.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chandrashekar, C. M., and Th Busch. 2014. “Quantum Percolation and Transition Point of a Directed Discrete-Time Quantum Walk.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6583.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meindl, J. D., Q. Chen, and J. A. Davis. 2001. “Limits on Silicon Nanoelectronics for Terascale Integration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5537): 2044–2049.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yu, Juan, Zhouqing Xie, Hui Kang, Zheng Li, Chen Sun, Lingen Bian, and Pengfei Zhang. 2014. “High Variability of Atmospheric Mercury in the Summertime Boundary Layer through the Central Arctic Ocean.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 6091.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa, David F. 2013. Foreign Exchange Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Andersen, Kim Viborg, John Debenham, and Roland Wagner, eds. 2005. Database and Expert Systems Applications: 16th International Conference, DEXA 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22-26, 2005. Proceedings. Vol. 3588. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Komatineni, Satya, and Dave MacLean. 2012. “Understanding Intents.” In Pro Android 4, edited by Dave MacLean, 113–134. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual and Physical Prototyping.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Study Claims Antarctic Ice Is Growing, But Net Gain Will Reverse In Decades.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Job Corps Costs and Outcomes. HRD-93-16R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sakalli Gumus, Suad. 2008. “Preparing Teachers for Partnering with Families: Examining the Impact of a Specifically Designed Curriculum on Professionals.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “Perot Tells It His Way - Take It Or Leave It.” New York Times, June 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ehrenreich 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrenreich 2004; Chandrashekar and Busch 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chandrashekar and Busch 2014)
  • Three authors: (Meindl, Chen, and Davis 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual and Physical Prototyping
AbbreviationVirtual Phys. Prototyp.
ISSN (print)1745-2759
ISSN (online)1745-2767
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Signal Processing
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

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