How to format your references using the Virtual and Physical Prototyping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virtual and Physical Prototyping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siomi, Mikiko C. 2009. “Journal Club. A Biologist Praises a Mouse Model of Autism Inheritance.” Nature 461 (7263): 451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tingley, Martin P., and Peter Huybers. 2013. “Recent Temperature Extremes at High Northern Latitudes Unprecedented in the Past 600 Years.” Nature 496 (7444): 201–205.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paradise, Jordan, Lori Andrews, and Timothy Holbrook. 2005. “Intellectual Property. Patents on Human Genes: An Analysis of Scope and Claims.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5715): 1566–1567.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dawson, Mary R., Laurent Marivaux, Chuan-Kui Li, K. Christopher Beard, and Grégoire Métais. 2006. “Laonastes and the ‘Lazarus Effect’ in Recent Mammals.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5766): 1456–1458.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rezzoug, Abderrezak, and Mohammed El-Hadi Zaïm. 2011. Non-Conventional Electrical Machines. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pohlmann, Norbert, Helmut Reimer, and Wolfgang Schneider, eds. 2010. ISSE 2009 Securing Electronic Business Processes: Highlights of the Information Security Solutions Europe 2009 Conference. Wiesbaden: Vieweg+Teubner.
A chapter in an edited book
Özkaya, Nihat, Margareta Nordin, David Goldsheyder, and Dawn Leger. 2012. “Statics: Systems in Equilibrium.” In Fundamentals of Biomechanics: Equilibrium, Motion, and Deformation, edited by Margareta Nordin, David Goldsheyder, and Dawn Leger, 35–59. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virtual and Physical Prototyping.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Our Brain Sees Known Words As Pictures.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Aviation Competition: Restricting Airline Ticketing Rules Unlikely to Help Consumers. GAO-01-831. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nixon, Helen A. 2015. “Defining Principals: The Seen and the Unseen. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards Five and Six.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2009. “Takeout That Moved On.” New York Times, November 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siomi 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Siomi 2009; Tingley and Huybers 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tingley and Huybers 2013)
  • Three authors: (Paradise, Andrews, and Holbrook 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dawson et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirtual and Physical Prototyping
AbbreviationVirtual Phys. Prototyp.
ISSN (print)1745-2759
ISSN (online)1745-2767
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Signal Processing
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles