How to format your references using the Pain Management Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin, E. (2014). Therapeutics: Negative feedback. Nature, 508(7494), S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wachsman, E. D., & Lee, K. T. (2011). Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6058), 935–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
Canfield, D. E., Glazer, A. N., & Falkowski, P. G. (2010). The evolution and future of Earth’s nitrogen cycle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6001), 192–196.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schönbächler, M., Rehkämper, M., Halliday, A. N., Lee, D.-C., Bourot-Denise, M., Zanda, B., … Günther, D. (2002). Niobium-zirconium chronometry and early solar system development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5560), 1705–1708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davies, J. (2010). Implementing SSL/TLS Using Cryptography and PKI. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Sharvit, K., & Halperin, E. (Eds.). (2016). A Social Psychology Perspective on The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Celebrating the Legacy of Daniel Bar-Tal, Vol II (1st ed. 2016). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tilley-Lubbs, G. A. (2016). Good Intentions Pave the Road to Hierarchy. In G. A. Tilley-Lubbs & S. B. Calva (Eds.), Re-Telling Our Stories: Critical Autoethnographic Narratives (pp. 51–67). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management Nursing.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, October 14). Plant Fungi Impact How Monarch Butterflies Fight Disease. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). FAA Purchase Cards: Weak Controls Resulted in Instances of Improper and Wasteful Purchases and Missing Assets (No. GAO-03-405). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Black, A. M. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ohio Statewide Agricultural Leadership Program (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2017, September 15). A Japanese Writer’s Reveries Are Voiced in Music. New York Times, p. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolgin, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Dolgin, 2014; Wachsman & Lee, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wachsman & Lee, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Canfield, Glazer, & Falkowski, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schönbächler et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management Nursing
AbbreviationPain Manag. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1524-9042
ScopeAdvanced and Specialised Nursing

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