How to format your references using the Pain Management Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D’Emic, M. D. (2015). Comment on “Evidence for mesothermy in dinosaurs.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6238), 982.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharon, I., & Banfield, J. F. (2013). Microbiology. Genomes from metagenomics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6162), 1057–1058.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okita, K., Ichisaka, T., & Yamanaka, S. (2007). Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 448(7151), 313–317.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, Y., Vogelstein, B., Velculescu, V. E., Papadopoulos, N., & Kinzler, K. W. (2008). The antisense transcriptomes of human cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5909), 1855–1857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beach, D. (1996). The Responsible Conduct of Research. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Tobin, K., & Shady, A. (Eds.). (2014). Transforming Urban Education: Urban Teachers and Students Working Collaboratively. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Child, I. G., & Ehiri, J. E. (2009). Maternal and Child Health in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Countries. In J. Ehiri (Ed.), Maternal and Child Health: Global Challenges, Programs, and Policies (pp. 53–81). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management Nursing.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, June 12). Blue Whales Travel Enormous Distances. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Federal Research Grants: Opportunities Remain for Agencies to Streamline Administrative Requirements (GAO-16-573). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander, R. T. (2017). Can the analytical hierarchy process model be effectively applied in the prioritization of information assurance defense in-depth measures? - a quantitative study [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M. (2017, May 8). Two Ex-Correction Officials Deny Clearing Trips to Maine. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (D’Emic, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (D’Emic, 2015; Sharon & Banfield, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharon & Banfield, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Okita et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (He et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management Nursing
AbbreviationPain Manag. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1524-9042
ScopeAdvanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles