How to format your references using the Pain Management Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pemberton, S. (2014). Perspective: The fix is in. Nature, 515(7528), S165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuwayama, H., & Ishida, S. (2013). Biological soliton in multicellular movement. Scientific Reports, 3, 2272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blackburn, E. H., Epel, E. S., & Lin, J. (2015). Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6265), 1193–1198.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Resa, I., Carmona, E., Gutierrez-Puebla, E., & Monge, A. (2004). Decamethyldizincocene, a stable compound of Zn(I) with a Zn-Zn bond. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5687), 1136–1138.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacRoberts. (2014). MacRoberts on Scottish Construction Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dang, Q. A., Nguyen, X. H., Le, H. B., Nguyen, V. H., & Bao, V. N. Q. (Eds.). (2015). Some Current Advanced Researches on Information and Computer Science in Vietnam: Post-proceedings of The First NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science (Vol. 341). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar, K. P. K., & Geethakumari, G. (2014). Analysis of Semantic Attacks in Online Social Networks. In G. Martínez Pérez, S. M. Thampi, R. Ko, & L. Shu (Eds.), Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security: Second International Conference, SNDS 2014, Trivandrum, India, March 13-14, 2014, Proceedings (pp. 45–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management Nursing.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2017, January 13). These Super Slow-Mo Videos Show A Viper Strike In All Its Glory. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Federal Lands: Survey of Land Managers’ Perspectives of Off-Highway Vehicle Use (GAO-09-547SP, June 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-509 (GAO-09-547SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uzoff, P. P. (2014). Virtual school teacher’s science efficacy beliefs: The effects of community of practice on science-teaching efficacy beliefs [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, August 5). Chase Is Over, But Pressure Is Still On. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pemberton, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kuwayama & Ishida, 2013; Pemberton, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuwayama & Ishida, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Blackburn et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Resa et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management Nursing
AbbreviationPain Manag. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1524-9042
ScopeAdvanced and Specialised Nursing

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