How to format your references using the Pain Management Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2000). United States backs soil strategy in fight against global warming. Nature, 406(6796), 549–550.
A journal article with 2 authors
Halloran, M. E., & Longini, I. M., Jr. (2006). Public health. Community studies for vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5761), 615–616.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, B., Parquette, J. R., & RajanBabu, T. V. (2009). Regiodivergent ring opening of chiral aziridines. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5960), 1662.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, P., Burke, S., Wang, J., Chen, X., Ortiz, M., Lee, S.-C., Lu, D., Campos, L., Goulding, D., Ng, B. L., Dougan, G., Huntly, B., Gottgens, B., Jenkins, N. A., Copeland, N. G., Colucci, F., & Liu, P. (2010). Reprogramming of T cells to natural killer-like cells upon Bcl11b deletion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 85–89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gywat, O., Krenner, H. J., & Berezovsky, J. (2009). Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sadeghi, A.-R., & Naccache, D. (Eds.). (2010). Towards Hardware-Intrinsic Security: Foundations and Practice. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bailey, D. L., & Humm, J. L. (2013). Physics of Nuclear Oncology. In H. W. Strauss, G. Mariani, D. Volterrani, & S. M. Larson (Eds.), Nuclear Oncology: Pathophysiology and Clinical Applications (pp. 79–92). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management Nursing.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, December 16). There Are Only Five Northern White Rhinos Left In The World. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Food Assistance: Computerized Information Matching Could Reduce Fraud and Abuse in the Food Stamp Program (T-RCED-98-254). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obasi, F. I. (2012). Policy analysis of the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017, July 10). Elliott Hedge Fund Tries to Beat Buffett’s Offer for Utility Operator. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Halloran & Longini, 2006; Smaglik, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Halloran & Longini, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Wu et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management Nursing
AbbreviationPain Manag. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1524-9042
ScopeAdvanced and Specialised Nursing

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