How to format your references using the Pain Management Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Church, G. (2015). Perspective: Encourage the innovators. Nature, 528(7580), S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parren, P. W. H. I., & Burton, D. R. (2009). Immunology. Two-in-one designer antibodies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5921), 1567–1568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmerman, A., Bai, L., & Ginty, D. D. (2014). The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6212), 950–954.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hung, D. T., Shakhnovich, E. A., Pierson, E., & Mekalanos, J. J. (2005). Small-molecule inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae virulence and intestinal colonization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5748), 670–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rahman, R. O. A., Rakhimov, R. Z., Rakhimova, N. R., & Ojovan, M. I. (2014). Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Voros, N., Mukherjee, A., Sklavos, N., Masselos, K., & Huebner, M. (Eds.). (2011). VLSI 2010 Annual Symposium: Selected papers (Vol. 105). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrari, L. T., Schaefer, C. E. G. R., Fernandes, R. B. A., Mendonça, B. A. F., Gjorup, D. F., Corrêa, G. R., & Senra, E. O. (2016). Thermic and Hydric Dynamics of Ironstone (Canga) and Quartzite Rupestrian Grasslands in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero: The Ecological Importance of Water. In G. W. Fernandes (Ed.), Ecology and Conservation of Mountaintop grasslands in Brazil (pp. 71–85). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 17). What It’s Like To Be A Woman Working In Science, And How To Make It Better. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Rural Utilities Service: Opportunities to Operate Electricity and Telecommunications Loan Programs More Effectively (RCED-98-42). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selby, C. (2015). With|out [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., Mazzetti, M., & Schmitt, E. (2017, July 19). Saudi King’s Son Plotted Effort to Oust His Rival. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Church, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Church, 2015; Parren & Burton, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parren & Burton, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Zimmerman et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hung et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management Nursing
AbbreviationPain Manag. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1524-9042
ScopeAdvanced and Specialised Nursing

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